- Record of Amendments
- Chapter 1
- Chapter 2
- Chapter 3
- Chapter 4
- Chapter 5
- Chapter 6
- Chapter 7
- Chapter 8
- Chapter 9
- Chapter 10
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Objectives — Obviously, the primary objective in dealing with an Abnormal or Emergency situation is to complete the operation safely. To achieve this primary objective other goals need to be pursued and tenets observed, depending on the situation. The following is a partial list. Depending on the circumstance others may need to be developed to meet the needs imposed by the situation.
- The abnormality or emergency should be mitigated such that aircraft operation is returned to as close to normal as possible.
- Although it is usually desirable to complete abnormal and emergency procedures quickly, it is more important that they be done correctly.
- The safety of passengers and persons on the ground is the first priority. The safety of the crew is the second priority. The third priority is the protection of property and the aircraft.
- Aural and Visual Indications — An aural alarm should be silenced as soon as the situation that the alarm applies to is clearly recognized. Visual caution and warning indications should be cancelled and re-armed as soon as practical after they are triggered. The condition that caused the indication should be determined before further action.
Automatic Protection Devices and Systems — Reset of a service that has been disabled by an automatic protection device or system is subject to the limitations in the following paragraphs:
- If a failed system is required for the completion of the flight, an attempt may be made to return it to service. If it is not required, the system should remain out of service.
- Unless otherwise indicated in the SOPs, checklists, or AFM, a circuit breaker that has opened should be reset a maximum of once to attempt to return a needed item to service. If the circuit breaker opens a second time no attempt should be made to reset it.
- A generator that has tripped may only be reset once unless otherwise specified in the SOPs, checklist, or AFM.
Crew Coordination - General — The importance of the crew operating as a team to deal with an abnormal or emergency situation cannot be overstated. That the Captain is in command is not in question. This does not relieve all remaining crew members of the responsibility for fostering the effectiveness of the Captain and taking initiative when the situation warrants. The general sequence for handling an abnormal or emergency situation is described in the following paragraphs.
- The first crew member (any crew member - not just the pilots) who notices an abnormal or emergency condition should make the applicable call either identifying the condition or initiating the appropriate immediate action.
- The PF or Captain (if appropriate) should call for the applicable drill or check.
- The PNF should complete the drill and/or check.
- As soon as practical after the initial actions are taken to respond to an abnormal situation, all crew members and the passengers should be apprised of the situation and planned action.
Crew Coordination - External Communication — During normal operations the PNF is tasked with timely routine communication to ATC and other agencies. During the handling of emergency or abnormal situations the PNF may be fully occupied with other duties. Therefore, during abnormal procedures the protocols described in the following paragraphs should be observed.
- During the drill portion of an emergency procedure all crew members are to remain focused on the drill. External communication is to be delayed until the drill is complete.
- During the completion of the check portion of an emergency or abnormal procedure the PF should handle the external communication.
- Upon completion of the check, the PNF should once again assume responsibility for the handling of external communications.
- The procedure for transfer of responsibility for external communications is similar to that for transfer of aircraft control which is described in the general chapter. The standard terminology is "I have the radios" or "You have the radios."
Crew Coordination - Internal Communication — During an abnormal or emergency situation effective internal communication is necessary for dealing with the situation, preventing it from becoming worse, and to reduce the unfavourable impact of events. The following areas of internal communications are relevant.
Flight Crew Members — During an abnormal or emergency situation the goal of effective communication is often difficult to achieve. The person who has important information to transmit must use judgement as to the timeliness and method of transmission. Nevertheless, it is the responsibility of the transmitter to ensure that information is received and understood! The transmitter may need to make several attempts to gain understanding. It may be difficult to determine that the recipient has understood - questioning of the recipient may be required. It may be necessary to observe that the recipient takes appropriate action before the transmitter can be sure that information has been passed. If repeated attempts to communicate have failed, the person involved may have become incapacitated - see the applicable section later in this chapter. Although this may seem very basic, far too many aircraft have been lost due to failed communication.
[Delete this section if your operation does not make use of crew members other than Flight Crew.]
Crew Members — The points that apply to flight crew also apply to other crew members. However, they must be even more careful in the timing of their communications with the flight crew. Crew members other than flight crew do however, require information to carry out their duties. The flight crew shall provide certain key information to other crew as soon as the initial actions for an emergency or abnormal situation are done. Due to high workload it may be necessary for crew members to actively extract from the flight crew the information that they require. The general information that the crew members will need to know is discussed in the section titled "Common Procedures, Emergency Landing."
[Additional information about communication with passengers during abnormal and emergency situations is available from the Passenger/Cabin Safety section of your regional office.]
- Passengers — Passengers have a need and a right to know what is happening in an emergency situation. As soon as practical after the initial actions are taken to safeguard the flight, the passengers should be provided with an honest and accurate summary of the situation. [Modify the next sentence to suit your operation depending on whether or not you carry crew other than the pilots.] Although the initial situation briefing may be provided to the passengers by any crew member, at some point the Captain should speak to them personally. Guidance on information to be provided to passengers is found in the section titled "Common Procedures, Emergency Landing."
- Flight Crew Members — During an abnormal or emergency situation the goal of effective communication is often difficult to achieve. The person who has important information to transmit must use judgement as to the timeliness and method of transmission. Nevertheless, it is the responsibility of the transmitter to ensure that information is received and understood! The transmitter may need to make several attempts to gain understanding. It may be difficult to determine that the recipient has understood - questioning of the recipient may be required. It may be necessary to observe that the recipient takes appropriate action before the transmitter can be sure that information has been passed. If repeated attempts to communicate have failed, the person involved may have become incapacitated - see the applicable section later in this chapter. Although this may seem very basic, far too many aircraft have been lost due to failed communication.
Crew Coordination - Confirmation of Vital Actions — During an abnormal or emergency situation, the completion of most actions is delegated to various crew members with little or no monitoring by the remaining crew. This minimal monitoring is necessary to permit effective completion of tasks in the time available. However, correct completion of some actions is so vital that confirmation by another crew member is required. Generally, it is mandatory to confirm correct completion of any action which if done incorrectly would result in loss of engine power or aircraft control. Specific direction is provided throughout this chapter.
[The contents of the following subsection may need to be modified for your operation. Consider such factors as:
- location of controls and switches;
- availability of flight instrument displays;
- experience of flight crews.]
- Crew Coordination - Aircraft Control — Except where the malfunction of aircraft controls prevents it, the pilot who has control at the time of occurrence of an abnormal or emergency event, should retain control during the initial corrective actions. For some corrective action it may be appropriate for the Captain to pass control to the FO to more effectively manage an emergency. In many cases experience that a Captain possesses may be better employed in overall management of an abnormal or emergency condition than in the manipulation of flight controls. Also, within the limitations described in the AFM, the autoflight system should be used to reduce crew workload.
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