7.23. Abort/Rejected Take Off

[This section deals with the procedures to be followed for discontinuing a take-off. We have used the term "Abort" in this section. Other popular terms are "Reject" and "Refuse". The choice of terms to be used is yours, however you should be consistent throughout your operation.]

[In developing procedures for aborting a take-off consider the following:

Provide general guidelines for when the take-off should be aborted and when it is probably safer to continue the take-off with a malfunction. In the following example, the guidance refers to the Abnormal Take-off section later in the chapter for situations that do not require an abort.

Make a clear statement that an abort is not to be attempted after V1. If your type of aircraft requires a procedure for recovery on the remaining runway after V1, or after the aircraft has lifted off, we recommend that two procedures be developed. One abort procedure would apply to an abort up to V1. The second procedure would provide guidance for aborting between V1 and the point where landing on the remaining runway is not feasible.

Provide very clear guidance on the decision making process to abort a take-off or to continue. In developing the guidance consider the following:

Many abort situations do not become apparent until the aircraft speed is very near to V1.

The process to decide to continue or to abort (including initiation of the abort) shall not take longer than the period allowed for as part of the certification. That is, the time from recognition of a problem at V1 until the time that deceleration begins is included in the calculation for the performance charts of the aircraft. This time is very brief. In many cases there is only sufficient time to direct that an abort is to occur. There is likely malfunction. Any delay in commencing an abort at V1 may result in the aircraft running off of the take-off surface, or becoming airborne uncommanded and possibly out of control.

Whatever you determine as the process for deciding to take-off or abort, it must be described very clearly.

We recommend that a drill and checklist be specified for the abort. However, as an effective abort will likely require very coordinated crew actions, a detailed procedure would probably be useful.]

[In our example (for a fictitious aircraft) any flight crew member may initiate an aborted take-off, and both pilots are integrally involved in bringing the aircraft to a stop. For our example aircraft, an abort cannot be safely carried out after V1.]

A take-off shall be aborted if the aircraft speed has not exceeded V1, and a situation develops that the safety of the aircraft would be jeopardized if the flight is continued. Any flight crew member may initiate the abort of a take-off provided the aircraft speed has not exceeded V1. For abnormal or emergency situations when the aircraft speed is in excess of V1, in most cases the safest course of action is to continue the take-off and deal with the situation in flight. For all aborted take-offs where the aircraft speed has not exceeded V1, the following procedure is to be used. If it is necessary to abort a take-off at a speed greater than V1 no procedure is specified. However, it is recommended that the abort before V1 procedure be used to the extent practical. For situations at or below V1 where safety of the aircraft would not be jeopardized by continuing the flight, see section on Abnormal Take-offs later in this chapter.

Table 7-2 Procedure and Crew Coordination - Abort
PF  PNF
If PNF initiates abort:
  • Respond "Aborting."

If PF initiates abort:

  • Call "Aborting" followed by a brief statement of problem.
If PNF initiates abort:
  • Call "Abort". After PF responds state briefly what the problem is.

If PF initiates abort:

  • Respond "Check."
* POWER LEVERS — Both to Disc

Raise the power lever triggers and select them to the discing position.

  • Call "Power Levers to Disc."
Monitor.
* Braking — Maximum until stopped

Apply maximum braking until stopped or until it is clear that maximum braking is not required. Initially maximum braking should be applied as brakes may only be available for a brief time.

  • Call "Brakes."

If normal brakes have failed use emergency brakes as described in AFM.

  • Call "Emergency Brakes."
Monitor.
Reversing — a/r

Use reversing if necessary and within the limits of directional control. No call is required with this action.

ATC/Traffic — Advised

Advise ATC or aerodrome traffic of the abort and intentions.

If PF is in the pilot seat, at maximum of ___ KIAS:
  • Call "Your wheel", and begin steering with the tiller.

If PF is in the co-pilot seat, at maximum of 60 KIAS but no later than taxi speed, lock the controls:

  • Announce "You have control" 
If PNF is in the co-pilot seat at a maximum of ___ KIAS:
  • Reply "My wheel", and lock the controls.

If PNF is in the pilot seat upon hearing "You have control":

  • Reply "I have control", and take over steering with the tiller.
* When aircraft has stopped — applicable drill/check

When the aircraft has stopped carry out the PF actions for the applicable drill. Unless it is obviously safe to taxi, stop the aircraft on the runway.

* When aircraft has stopped — applicable drill/check

When the aircraft has stopped carry out the applicable check or drill.

* Evacuation Drill — initiate if req'd

The Evacuation Drill is initiated only if required and only by the Captain. It is carried out by the Pilot, while the Co-pilot prepares to assist in the evacuation.

* Evacuation Drill — initiate if req'd

The Evacuation Drill is initiated only if required and only by the Captain. It is carried out by the Pilot, while the Co-pilot prepares to assist in the evacuation.

If it is safe to taxi, clear the active runway. Advise the other crew members and/or passengers of the intention to evacuate, or that they should remain seated until the aircraft comes to a stop. If time permits briefly announce the cause of the abort and what the planned actions are.

 
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