3.10. Take-off Procedure

[Obviously the Take-off procedure must be tailored specifically to the Aeroplane type, operating environment, and company policy. In developing a take-off procedure the following should be considered.
- The flight deck should be as quiet a place as possible during take-off.
- Although it is usually desirable to standardize procedures among dissimilar Aeroplane in the company fleet, great care must be exercised in doing so. It may be appropriate for the PF to keep a hand lightly rested on the power/thrust levers during take-off of one type of Aeroplane. However, it may be completely inappropriate to do so on another type of Aeroplane that requires both hands on the control yoke due to high control forces. Similarly, it is probably a very good idea to use a speed call prior to V1.
]

  1. General — The following table describes the procedure to be used to carry out a normal take-off. It commences at the completion of the "Before Take-off Check" and ends immediately before the "After Take-off Check." Many of the actions described are to be carried out without specific direction. Flight Deck conversation (including calls) other than as indicated in the following table should be avoided during the take-off procedure. Guidance on aborting a take-off is provided in the chapter that deals with Abnormal and Emergency Procedures. Diagrams pertaining to take-off procedures are found in chapter 10.

    [The example used is for a fictitious Aeroplane. In the example V1 and Vr are equal and the Aeroplane has a Data Computer that gives all manner of annoying warnings if the airspeed indicators do not match. See the Emergency & Abnormal chapter for more discussion on aborted take-offs. The Aeroplane in the example was designed and certified for a take-off procedure where the gear is retracted when the Aeroplane is in positive climb, but engine power and flaps remain at the take-off settings until at least 400 feet. If your Aeroplane was not specifically designed for this type of procedure, it may be advantageous to adopt a variation of it. However, great care must be taken to not develop a procedure that could result in the overspeed of a component. In particular the pitch attitude near the ground (below 400 ft AGL) should not exceed the approximate pitch that would maintain the applicable speed subsequent to an engine failure. Exceeding such a pitch attitude could result in loss of control in the event of an engine failure. We recommend against specifying a pitch attitude in excess of the approximate engine out attitude in an attempt to gain altitude more quickly or keep speed low. In short, you must insert procedures that apply to your type of Aeroplane.]

  2. Turns after Take-off — [Insert guidance about the maximum bank angles allowed immediately after take-off. Such guidance is particular to your type of Aeroplane and operation. The following is an example only.] After take-off no turns are permitted prior to at least 400 feet above the departure end unless: required by ATC; for noise abatement; to prevent collision; part of a departure procedure that is required to clear obstacles. If a turn is appropriate after take-off the following limitations shall apply:
    1. Turns are not permitted below 50 feet above the runway surface, before wheel retraction [delete if wheel retraction is not applicable], or a speed of V2, whichever occurs last.
    2. Between the conditions described in the paragraph immediately above and 400 feet above the departure end of the runway a maximum bank angle of 15o is permitted, but flaps shall not be retracted during bank.
    3. Higher than 400 feet above the departure end of the runway, a maximum bank angle of 30o or a rate one turn (whichever requires the lesser bank angle) is permitted provided that the minimum speed is 1.3 Vs. If the speed is less than 1.3 Vs but not less than Vclimb/V2, the maximum bank angle is 15o.
  3. Reduction from Take-off Power — Power shall not be reduced from the Take-off setting until the Aeroplane climbs to a safe altitude or 400 feet above the departure end of the runway whichever is higher. However, power shall be reduced no later than the time limit that applies to the power setting used. Flaps should be retracted before power is reduced.
  4. Flap Retraction — Flaps should not be retracted from the Take-off setting until the Aeroplane climbs to a safe altitude or 400 feet above the departure end of the runway, whichever is higher. However, flaps should be retracted prior to engine power reduction.

[Your type of Aeroplane and/or operation may have several take-off procedures that are substantially different. If so, it may be appropriate to use individual tables for each different take-off procedure.]

Normal Take-off - Procedure

Pilot

For a pilot seat flown take-off move left hand from the steering tiller to the control yoke:
Advance the power levers toward the take-off power setting. If the take-off warning horn sounds, abort the take-off.
When take-off power is set keep a hand resting lightly on top of the power levers in case it is necessary to abort the take-off.
At the appropriate speed on the Pilots airspeed indicator. If speed is appropriate place both hands on the control yoke to indicate understanding that V1 has been achieved. Rotate the Aeroplane at a rate of about 2o per second until the pitch attitude approximately matches the Flight Director command cue. Achieve a speed of V2 to (if all engines are operating normally) V2 + 10 KIAS.
When a "Positive Rate" is achieved, confirm a climb on the VSI and visually (if possible). If climbing:
  • - "Landing Gear Up"

If a landing gear malfunction has occurred do not exceed ___ KIAS. Retract flaps on schedule, climb to at least 1000 ft AGL and refer to the appropriate abnormal procedure check.

Climb at a speed of at least V2 + 10 KIAS (if all engines are operating normally). At a safe altitude that is at least 400 ft above the departure runway accelerate to Vfri then:
  • - Retract the"Flaps Up On Schedule"
Adjust the IAS using TCS. Do not exceed ____ KIAS until the Landing Gear is Up and the Flaps are retracted .
When the "Gear is Up and the Flaps are Up", if Take-off Power is no longer required:
  • - "Set Climb Power" (If other than standard power is required at this point set for the specific power required, ie. "Set Max Continuous Power.")
Climb to at least 2000 ft above the aerodrome elevation or to the cruise altitude (whichever is lower); or circuit/cleared altitude (during training):
  • - Complete "After Take-off Check", or the "Downwind Check" if applicable.

 
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