5.13. Instrument Approach Procedures Intermediate/Final

[The information in this section applies to Aeroplane which are routinely flown from the pilot or co-pilot seat with the pilot that flies the approach as the same one who carries out the landing. If your operation uses a different procedure then some modification to this section will be required.]

  1. General — This section on Instrument Approach Procedures Intermediate/Final, applies to the portion from the turn onto the Final Approach Track or the turn on to the last track to the FAF, until one of the following:
    1. the Aeroplane commences manoeuvring visually for a straight-in landing;
    2. the Aeroplane commences circling; or
    3. the Aeroplane commences a missed approach.
  2. Common Procedures Flight Guidance and Altitude Alert — The use of the Flight Director and Autopilot are recommended to reduce workload during approaches in busy terminal areas and during poor weather. The Altitude Alert is to be used to the extent practical to reduce the possibility of occupying an inappropriate altitude during the approach. When no longer required to steer the Aeroplane, the heading reminders/bugs should be set to the first heading to be used in the event of a missed approach. When no longer used during the approach, the Altitude Alert should be set to the first altitude that the Aeroplane is to be levelled at in the event of a missed approach.
  3. Standard Procedures - General — During the Intermediate/Final Approach phase some additional procedures are required to those described in the "General" chapter. These additional procedures are described in this subsection and the next one that deals with altitude.
    1. To reduce the likelihood of overshooting a desired track during the Intermediate/Final Approach phase, the Pilot should note when approaching a track that will be followed using primarily the track bar display. On initial movement of the track bar away from full deflection with the warning flags out of view, the Pilot should confirm the movement and intercept the desired track.
    2. When approaching a track which will be followed using primarily a bearing display, the Pilot should note that the Aeroplane is 10o away from the desired track and prepare to intercept.
    3. To reduce the likelihood of overshooting a desired vertical path during the Intermediate/Final Approach phase, On initial movement of the vertical path indicator away from full deflection with the warning flags out of view, the Pilot should note "VNAV is alive" and prepare to intercept.
    4. When approaching an ILS or MLS Glide Path, on initial movement of the Glide Slope indicator away from full deflection with the warning flags out of view, the Pilot should note "Glide Slope is alive" and prepare to intercept.
Altitude, Required Visual Reference, DH, MDA, Go-Around
  1. Glide Path — For a Precision Approach, upon crossing the FAF, the Pilot shall check the barometric altimeter against the published Altitude of the Nominal Glide Path at the FAF. It should be noted that several factors may cause the indicated and published height of the Glide Path at the FAF to differ by several hundred feet.
  2. 100 feet Above Specified Altitudes — When approaching any of the following altitudes inside the FAF, the Pilot shall prepare as the Aeroplane reaches 100 feet above the altitude.
    1. Minimum Altitude at a Step-down Fix;
    2. Minimum Altitude at a Facility;
    3. Minimum Descent Altitude (MDA) for a Non-Precision Approach;
    4. Decision Height (DH) for a precision approach.
    5. Upon descending to within 100 feet of the above-listed altitudes the Pilot should call or mentally note "100 Above."
  3. Minimum Altitude at a Step-down Fix or Facility — Where there is a published minimum altitude for crossing a step-down fix and/or facility that is inside the FAF the Pilot shall note mentally when the Aeroplane reaches it, as with the 100 feet above calls.
    1. Required Visual Reference - General — Once the Pilot assesses that Required Visual Reference is available, the Pilot should transition to the visual environment buy being aware of the DH or at the MDA .
    2. "Landing" — Once the Pilot confirms that Required Visual Reference is available the Pilot should confirm that the Aeroplane is in a position to continue for landing.
    3. "Go Around" — If landing is inadvisable (due to an obstructed runway, inappropriate Aeroplane position, or other reason), the Pilot should "Go Around" and advise ATC.
  4. Decision Height — Upon arriving at the Decision Height of a Category I Precision Approach, the following procedure/decision shall be made depending on the circumstance:
    1. If the required visual reference is available the Pilot should then carry out the procedures described in the Landing or Missed Approach areas of this chapter.
    2. If the required visual reference is not available the Pilot should then carry out the procedures described in the Missed Approach area of this chapter.

      Note that for Instrument Approach Procedures using a glide path but which terminate in a circling manoeuvre, the Standard Calls and Responses for Minimum Descent Altitude and Circling are to be used. An exception is that if required visual reference is not available when the Aeroplane descends on the glide path to the MDA, the MDA may be maintained to the Missed Approach Point.

  5. Minimum Descent Altitude — Upon arriving at the Minimum Descent Altitude of a Non-Precision Approach the following calls shall be made depending on the circumstance:
    1. If the required visual reference is available the Pilot should then either "Landing" or "Go Around."
    2. If the required visual reference is not available the Pilot should then carry out the procedures described in the Landing or Missed Approach areas of this chapter.
  6. Non-Precision Approach - Missed Approach Point/Missed Approach Waypoint — Upon arrival at the Missed Approach Point or the Missed Approach Waypoint the following calls shall be made depending on the circumstance:
    1. If the required visual reference is available the Pilot should should then carry out the procedures described in the Landing or Missed Approach areas of this chapter.
    2. If the required visual reference is not available the Pilot should then carry out the procedures described in the Missed Approach area of this chapter.

    [The paragraphs pertaining to glide slope, localizer and track, deviations are predicated on displays that have two index marks between centre and full deflection on each side of centre (five index marks). If your Aeroplane is equipped with another type of display, amend the following accordingly. Also, if your Aeroplane is equipped with an automatic warning system that alerts when a deviation occurs, make the deviation calls congruent with the automatic alerts.]

  7. Glide Path, Front Course Localizer — The provisions of this paragraph apply after the front course localizer and/or glide path capture has occurred. If the glide path or localizer display indicates that the Aeroplane has deviated from centre by one dot (the first index mark from centre) the Pilot should re-capture the"Glide Path" or "Localizer" as appropriate. If the glide path or localizer display indicates that the Aeroplane has deviated from centre by full deflection the Pilot shall "Go Around". The pilot should then carry out the procedures described in the Missed Approach area of this chapter.
  8. Back Course Localizer — The provisions of this paragraph apply after back course localizer capture has occurred up to approximately one mile from the localizer antenna. In the area of about one mile to the antenna, the localizer may be sufficiently erratic that the crew will have to determine if any action is necessary for localizer deviations. Prior to one mile from the antenna, if the back course localizer display indicates that the Aeroplane has deviated from centre by one dot (the first index mark from centre) the Pilot should re-capture "Localizer." If the back course localizer display indicates that the Aeroplane has deviated from centre by full deflection the Pilot shall re-capture or "Go Around" depending on the circumstances. If the Pilot elects to "Go Around", the pilot should then carry out the procedures described in the Missed Approach area of this chapter.
  9. Track Deviations — The provisions of this paragraph apply during an instrument final approach after a track has been captured. If a specific NAVAID is providing approach track guidance (NDB, VOR, VORTAC), these provisions do not apply when the Aeroplane is within approximately one mile of the NAVAID. Within one mile of the NAVAID the pilot should determine actions required for deviations. If the track indicator is the primary display and it shows that the Aeroplane has deviated from centre by one dot (the first index mark from centre) the Pilot should re-capture the"Track." If the track indicator shows that the Aeroplane has deviated from centre by full deflection the Pilot shall re-capture or "Go Around" depending on the circumstances. If the bearing indicator is the primary display and it shows that the Aeroplane has deviated from the desired track by 10o the Pilot should correct the Aeroplane toward the track centreline. If the bearing indicator shows that the Aeroplane has deviated from the desired track by 20o the Pilot shall re-capture or "Go Around" depending on the circumstances. If the Pilot elects to "Go Around" the crew should then carry out the procedures described in the Missed Approach area of this chapter.

    [The term "Stabilized Approach" will mean different things for different Aeroplane.]

  10. Stabilized Approach — Final approach can be a very high workload period of flight. It is also potentially one of the most hazardous phases of flight. A Stabilized Approach is intended to decrease workload, minimize crew distraction, and reduce the hazards associated with configuration changes at a critical phase of flight; generally it improves the likelihood of a successful approach. The Stabilized Approach configuration should be achieved no later than crossing the FAF/FAWP, or if there is no FAF immediately upon interception of the final approach track. Unless a stabilized approach is achieved crossing the FAF/FAWP or if there is no FAF while descending on the Final Approach Track, consideration should be given to executing a missed approach. Similarly, if one or more components of a previously stabilized approach is exceeded, consideration should be given to commencing a missed approach. A Stabilized Approach configuration is defined as follows.
    1. Established on the localizer/inbound track with no deviations (+/- one dot, +/- 10o of desired track).
    2. Established on the glide path (if applicable) with no deviations (+/- one dot) or no more than 300 feet above the FAF/FAWP Minimum Altitude.
    3. No Abnormal Airspeed (within -5 KIAS and +15 KIAS of Vapp).
    4. No Abnormal Rate of Descent (maximum descent rate of 1,000 FPM unless higher rate has been briefed). Note that for some approaches with very steep descent gradients on final approach, a rate of more than 1,000 FPM down may be required. If so, the requirement shall be briefed to all crew members.

    [Insert the Aeroplane configuration(s) that apply your operation. Specify either as a requirement, a recommended profile, or an approximate configuration. In developing procedures for Intermediate/Final Approaches, consider the following items:
    - Aeroplane speed;
    - Engine and/or propeller settings;
    - Landing Gear position;
    - Flap setting;
    - Icing considerations;
    - Speed brake or spoiler setting;
    - Timing procedures (if applicable), including which crew member(s) are to carry out timing;
    - NAVAID display;
    - Autopilot usage;
    - Flight Director usage.
    ]

  11. NDB Approach with FAF — [See configuration recommendations above.]
  12. NDB Approach without FAF — [See configuration recommendations above.]
  13. VOR or VOR/DME Approach with FAF — [See configuration recommendations above.]
  14. VOR or VOR/DME Approach without FAF — [See configuration recommendations above.]
  15. RNAV Approach — [If RNAV approaches (other than stand alone GPS) are done in your operation, insert the relevant procedures and crew coordination in this subsection. See configuration recommendations above.]
  16. GPS Non-precision Approach — [See configuration recommendations above.]
  17. ASR Approach — [If ASR approaches are done frequently in your operation, insert the relevant procedures and crew coordination in this subsection. See configuration recommendations above.]
  18. ILS Category I Approach — [See configuration recommendations above.]
  19. ILS Category II and III Approach — [If your operation is approved for ILS Category II or III Approaches, insert the relevant procedures and crew coordination in this subsection. See configuration recommendations above.]
  20. MLS Approach — [If your operation is approved for MLS Approaches, insert the relevant procedures and crew coordination in this subsection. See configuration recommendations above.]
  21. PAR Approach — [If PAR approaches are done frequently in your operation, insert the relevant procedures and crew coordination in this subsection. See configuration recommendations above.]

 
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