5.14. Circling Procedures

[The discussion in this section pertains to operators that are approved for circling at less than 1000 and 3. If your operation is not so approved, recommend that you refer to the section on VFR Circuits for procedures.]

[During circling it is mandatory that the aerodrome remain in view of the pilot. The pilot shall maintain visual contact and monitoring of Aeroplane altitude, speed, and bank angle. Whatever procedure your organization uses to carry out a circling manoeuvre, the above principles must apply. You must develop procedures that meet the requirements of your operation.]

  1. General — The information in this section provides guidance for circling from an Instrument Approach. Circling may be required whenever no straight-in minima are published, when the approach flown does not serve the runway of intended landing, or when a reconnaissance of the runway is advisable. Effective pilot coordination is vital to safe and effective circling. This section provides guidance for pilot coordination as well as configuration of the Aeroplane. This section must be used with the section on Landing Procedures that is found later in this chapter. Basic information on circling is found in the AIP and the Instrument Procedures Manual. The following points apply to all circling procedures:
    1. Visual contact with the aerodrome shall be maintained by the pilot throughout the circling manoeuvre.
    2. If visual contact with the aerodrome is lost, a missed approach shall be executed.
    3. The Aeroplane should remain at the MDA until in a position to commence a normal descent for landing.
    4. No more than 30o of bank is to be used during the circling manoeuvre.
  2. Aeroplane Configuration — The recommended configuration for circling until the Aeroplane commences the final descent for landing follows. For information on landing see the Landing Procedures section later in this chapter.

    [Insert the Aeroplane configuration(s) that apply your operation. Specify either as a requirement, a recommended profile, or an approximate configuration. In developing procedures for Intermediate/Final Approaches, consider the following items:
    - Aeroplane speed;
    - Circling Category (based on the maximum speed used during the final, circling, and initial part of the missed approach);
    - Engine and/or propeller settings;
    - Landing Gear position;
    - Flap setting;
    - Icing considerations;
    - Speed brake or spoiler setting;
    - NAVAID display;
    - Autopilot usage;
    - Flight Director usage.

  3. Common Procedures — The pilot flying the instrument portion of the approach should Commencing Circling in response to Visual references. Once the Aeroplane has been manoeuvred into a position for a normal landing the Pilot shall prepare to Landing and continue as described in the section "Landing Procedures" found later in this chapter. If reconnaissance of the runway is one of the objectives of the circling manoeuvre, the pilot should observe the runway relevant information using the following format:
    1. Wind;
    2. Obstructions on the runway;
    3. Runway surface condition; and
    4. Remarks.

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