Flight Test Guide - Competency Check (Private Operators)

Foreword

This flight test guide contains procedures and guidelines for the conduct of Competency Checks required under Subpart 604 of the Canadian Aviation Regulations. This guide is for use by Civil Aviation Safety Inspectors (CASI) and individuals qualified to conduct this test, as well as pilot candidates.

First Edition

Table of Contents

Chapter 1 - General

1.1 Grading Methodology

When assessing the knowledge and skills of a competency check candidate, an individual conducting a competency check will use the 4-point marking scale developed later in this chapter. A numerical value of 4, 3, 2, or 1 will be awarded as a mark for a competency check sequence that best describes the weakest element(s) applicable to the candidate’s performance of that sequence.

The following six (6) competency check elements cover all the critical areas of flight checking.

These elements are divided into two main groups:

  • (a) Two (2) technical elements:
    • Aircraft handling;
    • Technical skills and knowledge;
  • (b) Four (4) non-technical elements (NOTECHS):
    • Cooperation;
    • Leadership and managerial skills;
    • Situational awareness;
    • Decision-making

The six (6) elements as a basis for assessment are further explained as follows:

  • (a) Aircraft Handling – Quality and accuracy in flying the aircraft; smoothness, coordination and appropriateness of control inputs; the use of approved techniques or procedures; the performance relative to specified tolerances; actions taken when deviations occur; magnitude of deviations; promptness of corrections.
  • (b) Technical Skills and Knowledge – Practical use and understanding of aircraft systems, automation interface and operating procedures; practical use and understanding of all applicable information necessary for safe flight such as performance data, charts, weather information and physiological factors; display of technical competency as necessary to complete tasks safely and efficiently by adherence to SOPs and regulatory requirements.
  • (c) Cooperation – Fostering of a cooperative work environment and open communication atmosphere; seeking and providing feedback; support of others; offering assistance; suggesting solutions in conflict situations; concentrating on correct actions and not incorrect individuals.
  • (d) Leadership and Managerial Skills – Subscribing to SOP compliance and striving for top crew performance; goals and plans clearly stated and confirmed; plans updated or amended with appropriate consultation; effectiveness of workload management and task distribution among crewmembers; proper prioritization of tasks.
  • (e) Situational Awareness – Awareness of aircraft status and operating environment; awareness of time and space; active monitoring and vigilance; use of outside resources when necessary; gathering and dissemination of relevant information; pro-active anticipation of potential threats, contingencies and future events; timely identification of errors and proper appreciation of potential consequences.
  • (f) Decision Making – Proper definition and diagnosis of a problem or situation; generation of options; proper assessment of risks associated with alternative options; confirmation of selected option; review of anticipated outcome.

1.2 Core Principles in the Assessment of Non-Technical Skills (NOTECHS)

Effective non-technical skills are important contributors to Crew Resource Management (CRM) and greatly enhance a pilot or crew’s ability to identify potential threats and avoid errors, or detect them and mitigate their consequences. Communication skills are seen as an essential component to all non-technical elements and as such do not constitute a separate skills set in the context of NOTECHS.

Assessment of non-technical elements is always based on observable behaviors. An individual conducting a competency check must not presume what is going on in a candidate’s mind. Behavior must be observed directly or inferred from crew interaction. Examples of behaviors that can be directly observed or inferred by crew interaction are as follows:

  • Active monitoring of weather, aircraft systems, instruments and ATS communications;
  • Sharing of relevant information;
  • Statement and acknowledgement of goals and plans;
  • Proper communication and acknowledgement with respect to workload distribution;
  • Prioritization of secondary operational tasks;
  • Recognition of situations leading to task saturation;
  • Proper planning of time and space with respect to aircraft maneuvering or the completion of procedures;
  • Recognition and acknowledgement of aircraft status and mode changes;
  • Use of recommended terminology as per Standard Operating Procedures with no or limited chatter;
  • Recognition and avoidance of potential distractions caused by automation or crew workload.

Conversely, poor non-technical skills tend to contribute to ineffective CRM and usually lead to errors and overall poor technical performance. Therefore, an assessment of (1) for a competency check sequence will be based on the unsatisfactory performance of a technical manoeuvre, procedure or task, which may be rooted in the display of one or more ineffective non-technical skills. In a flight crew concept therefore, NOTECHS should form part of the assessment for every required competency check sequence.

1.3 4-Point Marking Scale

When applying the 4-point scale, an individual conducting a competency check will award the mark that best describes the weakest element(s) applicable to the candidate’s performance. Comments to support marks of 1 or 2 should be entered on the competency check report and should link to a safety issue, technical performance criteria, approved techniques or procedures, and/or non-technical skills.

Mark General Definition Specific Elements
4 Performance of manoeuvre, procedure or task remains well within specified performance criteria. Non-technical skills contribute effectively towards the desired outcome. All potential threats receive proper consideration. Errors, if any, are inconsequential or immediately corrected.
  • Aircraft handling is smooth, precise and well within specified criteria;
  • Technical skills and knowledge generally exceed the level required for safe and efficient operation;
  • Very good cooperation skills ensure effective teamwork and crew coordination at all times;
  • Leadership and managerial skills contribute to top crew performance
  • Behavior indicates continuous vigilance and highly accurate situational awareness;
  • Decision-making skills provide for timely decisions using all available information that lead to the safest and most efficient outcome.
3 Minor deviations may occur from specified performance criteria while overall performance of a manoeuvre, procedure or task remains within prescribed limits. Non-technical skills are generally effective in assisting technical performance. Potential threats tend to generate due consideration. Errors, if any, are identified and corrected in a timely manner.
  • Aircraft handling is positive and generally within specified criteria;
  • Technical skills and knowledge meet the required level of competency for safe and efficient operation;
  • Good cooperation skills assist in effective teamwork and crew coordination;
  • Leadership and managerial skills contribute to good crew performance;
  • Behavior indicates that situational awareness is maintained;
  • Decision-making skills provide for timely decisions aimed at safe and effective outcomes.
2 Deviations from specified performance criteria occur, which may include excursions from prescribed tolerances or a major error, but are recognized and corrected within an acceptable timeframe. Non-technical skills contribute to sub-standard technical performance. Consideration to relevant threats may not be fully adequate. Errors are poorly managed but do not jeopardize safety of flight.
  • Aircraft handling is performed with limited proficiency and/or includes brief deviations from specified criteria;
  • Technical skills and knowledge reveal limited technical competency and/or depth of knowledge with respect to applicable regulatory requirements, SOPs, and/or aircraft systems, limitations and performance characteristics;
  • Cooperation skills undermine effective teamwork and crew coordination;
  • Leadership and managerial skills allow for deviations from procedures and/or poor crew performance;
  • Behavior indicates lapses in situational awareness that are identified and corrected by the crew;
  • Decision-making skills do not consistently generate decisions providing a safe and efficient outcome.
1 Unacceptable deviations from specified performance criteria occur, which may include excursions from prescribed tolerances or procedures which are not recognized or corrected within an acceptable timeframe. Non-technical skills contribute to unacceptable technical performance. Mismanagement of potential threats and/or errors compromises safety of flight.
  • Aircraft handling is rough, includes uncorrected or excessive deviations from specified tolerances, or leads to an undesired aircraft state;
  • Technical skills and knowledge reveal unacceptable levels of technical competency and/or depth of knowledge with respect to applicable regulatory requirements, SOPs, and/or aircraft systems, limitations and performance characteristics;
  • Poor cooperation skills contribute to unresolved conflicts or lead to an unacceptable level of crew coordination;
  • Leadership and managerial skills are counterproductive to good crew performance and ineffective unless continuously challenged or prompted by other crewmembers;
  • Behavior indicates lapses in situational awareness that are not identified and corrected by the crew;
  • Decision-making skills are inadequate and may lead to decisions jeopardizing safety of flight.

1.4 Implementation of LOFT as a Component of a Flight Training Program

If a private operator elects to incorporate line-oriented flight training (LOFT) as a component of its flight training program, a portion of the Competency Check (Private Operators) may be conducted during a LOFT event. The exercises that may be assessed during LOFT are limited to the following:

  • Flight planning;
  • Pre-flight;
  • Engine start / depart;
  • Taxi-out;
  • No more than one take-off;
  • Initial climb;
  • En route climb;
  • Cruise;
  • Descent;
  • No more than one landing;
  • Ground arrival / flight close; and
  • PNF duties.

1.5 Satisfactory Assessment of a Competency Check

The satisfactory assessment of a competency check is deemed to meet the skill requirements associated with an initial instrument rating or its renewal.

Following the satisfactory assessment of a competency check, it is incumbent upon the individual who conducted the check to complete all administrative duties associated with forms administration, record keeping and notification procedures as required by the operator.

1.6 Unsatisfactory Assessment of a Competency Check

A competency check will receive an unsatisfactory assessment when any of the following conditions apply:

  • (a) when any individual competency check sequence has been assessed a mark of “(1)”; or
  • (b) when the assessment of competency check sequences has reached a number of five marks of “(2)”.

When an individual conducting a competency check determines that a pilot has demonstrated unsatisfactory performance during the course of a competency check, the competency check must be immediately terminated.

Following the unsatisfactory assessment of a competency check, it is incumbent upon the individual who conducted the check to complete all administrative duties associated with forms administration, record keeping and notification procedures as required by the operator.

1.7 Retest Procedures

For admission to a competency check re-test subsequent to an assessment of unsatisfactory performance, the candidate must first receive remedial training targeted towards items and sequences which contributed to the unsatisfactory assessment, and then meet the admission requirements as set out in the CARs.

Chapter 2 - Flight Test Exercises (Aeroplane)

Note: The decimal numbers used in the section titles found in this chapter correspond to the flight sequence numbers used on Transport Canada form 26-0249 (Flight Test Report for Pilot Proficiency Check – Aeroplane).

2.1 Technical Knowledge

Aim

To determine the candidate’s ability to demonstrate a practical knowledge of selected systems, components, normal, abnormal and emergency procedures and operate aircraft systems in accordance with the POH/AFM.

Description

The individual conducting the competency check will conduct an equipment knowledge assessment requiring the candidate to demonstrate a practical knowledge of the airframe, engine, major components and systems including the normal, abnormal, alternate and emergency operating procedures and limitations relating thereto.

The equipment knowledge assessment is optional when the pilot’s training record contains a valid written examination, from initial or recurrent training.

Performance Criteria

Assessment of the candidate’s ability to explain the operation of the following systems as applicable:

  • landing gear;
  • powerplant;
  • propellers;
  • fuel system;
  • oil system;
  • hydraulic system;
  • electrical system;
  • environmental systems;
  • avionics and communications (autopilot; flight director; Electronic Flight Instrument Systems (EFIS); Flight Management System(s) (FMS); Long Range Navigation (LORAN) systems; Doppler Radar; Inertial Navigation Systems (INS/IRS); Global Navigation Satellite System (GPS/DGPS/WGPS); VOR, NDB, ILS/MLS, RNAV systems and components; indicating devices; transponder TCAS; GPWS/EGPWS/TAWS if applicable and emergency locator transmitter);
  • ice protection;
  • crewmember and passenger equipment (oxygen system, survival gear, emergency exits, evacuation procedures, crew duties, quick donning oxygen mask for crewmembers and passengers);
  • flight controls (ailerons, elevator(s), rudder(s), winglets, canards, control tabs, balance tabs, stabilizer, flaps, spoilers, leading edge flaps/slats and trim systems);
  • pitot-static system with associated instruments and the power source for the flight instruments; and
  • systems and components listed above with regard to the POH or AFM, the Minimum Equipment List (MEL), if appropriate, and Operations Specifications, if applicable.

2.2 Flight Planning (FLP)

Aim

To determine the candidate’s ability to plan a flight utilizing performance charts, weight and balance calculations, conforming to the VFR or IFR flight rules as applicable and retrieving and interpreting aviation weather information necessary for the safe conduct of the flight.

Description

The flight planning phase begins when the flight crew initiates the use of flight planning information facilities and becomes dedicated to a flight based upon a route and an aircraft; ends when the crew arrives at the aircraft for the purpose of the planned flight or the crew initiates a “Flight Close” phase.

The individual conducting the competency check will conduct a flight planning practical assessment requiring the candidate to demonstrate a knowledge of the operator’s Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) and the Aeroplane Flight Manual including aeroplane and runway performance charts where applicable, loading, weight and balance procedures and Flight Manual Supplements. This practical assessment should be conducted while using the operator’s specific operational flight plan where available.

The flight planning assessment is optional when the pilot’s training record contains a valid written examination, from initial or recurrent training.

Performance Criteria

Assessment of the candidate’s ability to:

  • demonstrate a practical knowledge of performance and limitations, including a the adverse effects of exceeding any limitation;
  • demonstrate proficient use of (as appropriate to the aeroplane) performance charts, tables, graphs, or other data relating to items, such as:
    1. accelerate-stop distance
    2. accelerate-go distance
    3. takeoff performance—all engines, engine(s) operating
    4. climb performance including segmented climb performance; with all engines operating, with one or more engine(s) inoperative, and with other engine malfunctions as may be appropriate
    5. service ceiling—all engines, engines(s) inoperative, including drift down, if appropriate
    6. cruise performance
    7. fuel consumption, range, and endurance
    8. descent performance
    9. go-around from rejected landings
    10. other performance data (appropriate to the aeroplane)
  • describe (as appropriate to the aeroplane) the airspeeds used during specific phases of flight;
  • describe the effects of meteorological conditions upon performance characteristics and to correctly apply these factors to a specific chart, table, graph, or other performance data;
  • compute the centre-of-gravity location for a specific load condition (as specified by the examiner), including adding, removing, or shifting weight;
  • determine if the computed centre-of-gravity is within the forward and aft centre-of-gravity limits, and that lateral fuel balance is within limits for takeoff and landing for the proposed flight;
  • demonstrate acceptable planning and knowledge of procedures in applying operational factors affecting aeroplane performance;
  • select an appropriate route, altitude and alternate;
  • locate and apply information essential to the flight;
  • obtain and correctly interpret applicable NOTAM information;
  • calculate the estimated time enroute and total fuel requirement based on factors such as power settings, operating altitude or flight level, wind and fuel reserve requirements;
  • determine that the required performance for the planned flight is within the aircraft’s capability and operating limitations;
  • make a competent “GO/NO-GO” decision based on available information for the planned flight;
  • complete a flight plan in a manner that reflects the conditions of the proposed flight;
  • demonstrate sufficient practical operational knowledge of the regulatory requirements relating to instrument and visual flying, as applicable; and
  • retrieve and interpret items such as weather reports and forecasts; pilot and radar reports; surface analysis charts; significant weather prognostics; winds and temperatures aloft; freezing level charts, NOTAMS and SIGMETs.

2.3 Pre-flight (PRF)

Aim

To determine the candidate’s ability to systematically complete internal and external checks in accordance with the POH/AFM and SOPs to ensure that the aeroplane is ready for the intended flight. The candidate will also demonstrate knowledge of how to deal with irregularities, if found.

Description

The pre-flight begins with flight crew arrival at an aircraft for the purpose of flight and ends when the crew departs the parking position and/or starts the engine(s). It may also end by the crew initiating a “Post-flight” phase.

The candidate will determine that the aeroplane is ready for the intended flight. The pre-flight aeroplane inspection will include a visual inspection of the exterior and interior of the aeroplane, locating each required item and explaining the purpose of the inspection in accordance with the POH/AFM and SOPs.

The candidate will carry out in accordance with the POH/AFM a visual check for fuel quantity, proper grade of fuel, fuel contamination and oil levels. If, due to aircraft design, the POH/AFM does not prescribe a visual check of fuel levels, the candidate will use fuel chits, fuel logs or other credible procedures to confirm the amount of fuel on board the aircraft. In addition, the candidate will demonstrate programming and use of available flight management, navigation and guidance systems.

At the request of the individual conducting the competency check, the candidate will conduct an oral passenger safety briefing where applicable.

Performance Criteria

Assessment of the candidate’s ability to:

  • demonstrate an adequate knowledge of the pre-flight inspection procedures, while explaining briefly the purpose of inspecting the items, which must be checked, how to detect possible defects and the corrective action to take;
  • demonstrate adequate knowledge of the operational status of the aeroplane by locating and explaining the significance and importance of related documents, such as airworthiness and registration certificates, operating limitations, handbooks, and manuals, minimum equipment list (MEL) (if appropriate), weight and balance data and maintenance requirements, tests, and appropriate records applicable to the proposed flight or operation; and maintenance that may be performed by the pilot or other designated crewmember;
  • use the approved checklist to inspect the aeroplane externally and internally;
  • use the challenge-and-response (or other approved) method with the other crewmember(s), where applicable to accomplish the checklist procedures;
  • verifiy the aeroplane is safe for flight by emphasizing (as appropriate) the need to look at and explain the purpose of inspecting items, such as:
    1. powerplant, including controls and indicators
    2. fuel quantity, grade, type, contamination safeguards, and servicing procedures
    3. oil quantity, grade, and type
    4. hydraulic fluid quantity, grade, type, and servicing procedures
    5. oxygen quantity, pressures, servicing procedures, and associated systems and equipment for crew and passengers
    6. hull, landing gear, float devices, brakes, and steering system
    7. tires for condition, inflation, and correct mounting, where applicable
    8. fire protection/detection systems for proper operation, servicing, pressures, and discharge indications
    9. pneumatic system pressures and servicing
    10. ground environmental systems for proper servicing and operation
    11. auxiliary power unit (APU) for servicing and operation
    12. flight control systems including trim, spoilers, and leading/trailing edge
    13. anti-ice, deice systems, ice warning systems, servicing, and operation
  • coordinate with ground crew and ensure adequate clearance prior to moving any devices, such as door, hatches and flight control surfaces;
  • comply with the provisions of the appropriate Operations Specifications, if applicable, as they pertain to the particular aeroplane and operation;
  • demonstrate proper operation of all applicable aeroplane systems;
  • note any discrepancies, determine if the aeroplane is airworthy and safe for flight, or takes the proper corrective action with respect to unsatisfactory conditions identified; and
  • check the general area around the aeroplane for hazards to the safety of the aeroplane and personnel.

2.4 Engine Start/Depart (ESD)

Aim

To determine the candidate’s ability to; complete the correct engine start procedures including the use of an auxiliary power unit (APU) or external power source under various atmospheric conditions, conducting warm-up, run-up and system checks, recognize normal and abnormal situations, and take proper action in the event of a malfunction.

Description

Engine start/depart begins when the flight crew takes action to have the aircraft moved from the parked position and/or takes switch action to energize the engine(s). It ends when the aircraft begins to move under its own power or the crew initiates an "Arrival/Engine Shutdown" phase.

The candidate will demonstrate the proper use of the pre-start, start and pre-taxi checklists and check the appropriate radio communications, navigation and electronic equipment and selection of the appropriate communications and navigation frequencies prior to flight.

Performance Criteria

Assessment of the candidate’s ability to:

  • ensure ground safety procedures are followed during the before-start, start, and after-start phases;
  • ensure the appropriate use of ground crew personnel during the start procedures;
  • perform all items of the start procedures by systematically following the approved checklist items for the before-start, start, and after-start phases;
  • demonstrate sound judgment and operating practices in those instances where specific instructions or checklist items are not published;
  • use of the challenge-and-response (or other approved) method with the other crewmember(s), where applicable, to accomplish the checklist procedures;
  • coordinate with ground crew and ensures adequate clearance prior to moving any devices, such as door, hatches, and flight control surfaces;
  • demonstrate adequate knowledge of the pre-takeoff checks by stating the reason for checking the items outlined on the approved checklist and explaining how to detect possible malfunctions;
  • divide attention properly inside and outside cockpit;
  • ensure that all systems are within their normal operating range prior to beginning, during the performance of, and at the completion of those checks required by the approved checklist;
  • explain, as may be requested by the individual conducting the competency check, any normal or abnormal system operating characteristic or limitation; and the corrective action for a specific malfunction;
  • determine if the aeroplane is safe for the proposed flight or requires maintenance;
  • determine the aeroplane’s takeoff performance, considering such factors as wind, density altitude, weight, temperature, pressure altitude, and runway condition and length;
  • determine airspeeds/V-speeds and properly sets all instrument references, flight director and autopilot controls, and navigation and communications equipment;
  • review procedures for emergency and abnormal situations, which may be encountered during takeoff, and states the corrective action required of the pilot in command and other concerned crewmembers;
  • perform an avionics and navigation equipment cockpit check; and
  • obtain and correctly interpret the takeoff and departure clearance as issued by ATC.

2.5 Taxi-out (TXO)

Aim

To determine the candidate’s ability to manoeuvre the aeroplane safely on the ground and avoid unnecessary interference with the movement of other traffic as appropriate to the aeroplane including pushback or power-back, as applicable.

Description

Taxi-out begins when the crew moves the aeroplane under its own power and ends when thrust is increased for the purpose of take-off or the crew initiates a “Taxi-in” phase.

The candidate will taxi the aircraft to and from the runway in use and as otherwise required during the competency check. While taxiing, the candidate will follow taxiing procedures including, where appropriate, sailing and docking.

In addition, the taxi check will include the use of the taxiing checklist, taxiing in compliance with clearances and instructions issued by the appropriate air traffic control unit or by the individual conducting the competency check. Where a second-in-command undergoes the pilot competency check, outlined above, the individual conducting the competency check will evaluate taxing to the extent practicable from the second-in-command position.

Performance Criteria

Assessment of the candidate’s ability to:

  • demonstrate adequate knowledge of safe taxi procedures (as appropriate to the aeroplane including push-back or powerback, as may be applicable);
  • demonstrate proficiency by maintaining correct and positive aeroplane control;
  • maintain proper spacing on other aircraft, obstructions, and persons;
  • accomplish the applicable checklist items and perform recommended procedures;
  • maintain desired track and speed;
  • perform an instrument and flight control check;
  • comply with instructions/clearances issued by ATC (or the examiner simulating ATC);
  • observe runway hold lines, localizer and glide slope critical areas and other surface control markings and lighting;
  • maintain constant vigilance and aeroplane control during taxi operation to prevent runway incursion; and
  • demonstrate procedures for Reduced Visibility Operations Plan (RVOP) and Low Visibility Operations Plan (RVOP) where applicable.

2.6 Take-off (TOF)

Aim

To determine the candidate’s ability to take off safely using the correct technique and procedure for the actual wind conditions, runway surface and length, and to assess the possibility of further conditions such as wind shear and wake turbulence.

Description

Take-off begins when the crew increases the thrust for the purpose of take-off; ends when an Initial Climb is established (35 feet above runway elevation) or the crew initiates a “Rejected Take-off” phase.

The candidate will demonstrate a normal (i.e. standard take-off configuration with all engines operating) take-off performed in accordance with the Airplane Flight Manual. The candidate will demonstrate an instrument take-off in the same manner as the normal take-off with simulated instrument conditions established at or after reaching an altitude of 200 feet above the airport elevation. The instrument take-off is not required where the Operator's Certificate authorizes operations under day VFR only, or the operator assigns the pilot to day VFR flight only. Where practicable, the candidate will demonstrate, one crosswind take-off performed in accordance with the AFM/AOM where applicable.

For competency checks conducted in a simulator, the candidate will demonstrate a take-off in a minimum 10-kt crosswind in addition to an instrument take-off at the minimum visibility approved for the operator.

Where an operator has RVR 1200 or RVR 600 take-off limits authority, the candidate will demonstrate one such take-off to the lowest limit as appropriate to his flight crew position.

Note: The individual conducting the competency check may combine any or of these take-offs.

Performance Criteria

Assessment of the candidate’s ability to:

  • demonstrate adequate knowledge of normal and crosswind takeoffs and climbs including (as appropriate to the aeroplane) airspeeds, configurations, and emergency/abnormal procedures;
  • note any surface conditions, obstructions, or other hazards that might hinder a safe takeoff;
  • verify and correctly apply correction for the existing wind component to the takeoff performance;
  • complete required checks prior to starting takeoff to verify the expected powerplant performance;
  • aligns the aeroplane on the runway centerline;
  • apply the controls correctly to maintain longitudinal alignment on the centerline of the runway prior to initiating and during the takeoff;
  • adjusts the powerplant controls as recommended by the POH/AFM or other approved guidance for the existing conditions;
  • monitor powerplant controls, settings, and instruments during takeoff to ensure all predetermined parameters are maintained;
  • adjusts the controls to attain the desired pitch attitude at the predetermined airspeed/V-speed to attain the desired performance for the particular takeoff segment;
  • perform the required pitch changes and, as appropriate, performs or calls for and verifies the accomplishment of, gear and flap retractions, power adjustments, and other required pilot-related activities at the required airspeed/Vspeeds within the tolerances established in the POH or AFM;
  • use the applicable noise abatement and wake turbulence avoidance procedures, as required;
  • accomplish or calls for and verifies the accomplishment of the appropriate checklist items;
  • maintain the appropriate climb segment airspeed/Vspeeds; and
  • maintain the desired heading within ±10° and the desired airspeed/V-speed within +10/-5 knots or the appropriate Vspeed range.

2.7 Rejected Take-off (RTO)

Aim

To determine the candidate’s ability to recognize an abnormal situation necessitating a rejected takeoff and to carry out an appropriate procedure in accordance with the AFM/POH and/or SOPs.

Description

When performed in a simulator, the candidate will demonstrate a rejected take-off before reaching lift-off speed or if conducted in the aircraft, the candidate will verbally explain this manoeuvre during the briefing. Where an operator has RVR 1200 or RVR 600 take-off limits authority, the candidate may demonstrate one such rejected take-off to the lowest limit as appropriate to his flight crew position.

For competency checks conducted in a simulator, the candidate will demonstrate a rejected take-off from a speed of not less than 90% of the calculated V1 or less if appropriate to the aeroplane type.

Performance Criteria

Assessment of the candidate’s ability to:

  • demonstrate adequate knowledge of the technique and procedure for accomplishing a rejected takeoff after powerplant/system(s) failure/warnings, including related safety factors;
  • take into account, prior to beginning the takeoff, operational factors which could affect the manoeuvre, such as Takeoff Warning Inhibit Systems or other aeroplane characteristics, runway length, surface conditions, wind, obstructions that could affect takeoff performance and could adversely affect safety;
  • align the aeroplane on the runway centerline;
  • perform all required pre-takeoff checks as required by the appropriate checklist items;
  • adjust the powerplant controls as recommended for the existing conditions;
  • apply the controls correctly to maintain longitudinal alignment on the centerline of the runway;
  • abort the takeoff if, in a single-engine aeroplane the powerplant failure occurs prior to becoming airborne, or in a multiengine aeroplane, the powerplant failure occurs at a point during the takeoff where the abort procedure can be initiated and the aeroplane can be safely stopped on the remaining runway/stopway. If a flight simulator is not used, the powerplant failure will be explained by the candidate prior to the flight;
  • reduce the power smoothly and promptly, if appropriate to the aeroplane, when powerplant failure is recognized;
  • use spoilers, prop reversing, thrust reversing, wheel brakes, and other drag/braking devices, as appropriate, maintaining positive control in such a manner as to bring the aeroplane to a safe stop; and
  • accomplishes the appropriate powerplant failure or other procedures and/or checklists as set forth in the POH, AFM or SOPs.

2.8 Initial Climb (ICL)

Aim

To determine the candidate’s ability to comply with initial climb departure procedures as cleared.

Description

The initial climb sequence starts at 35 feet above runway elevation and ends when the aeroplane is in a clean configuration and accelerates to an appropriate enroute climb speed.

The candidate will complete the initial climb procedures, the departure procedures and establish the aircraft on the enroute course, as cleared, in accordance with Visual or Instrument Flight Rules, as applicable. In addition, the candidate will demonstrate the proper programming and use of Flight Management Systems as applicable.

Performance Criteria

Assessment of the candidate’s ability to:

  • transition smoothly and accurately from visual meteorological conditions to actual or simulated instrument meteorological conditions, where applicable;
  • monitor powerplant controls, settings, and instruments during the initial climb to ensure all predetermined parameters are maintained;
  • adjusts the controls to attain the desired pitch attitude at the predetermined airspeed/V-speed to attain the desired performance for the particular takeoff and climb segment;
  • perform the required pitch changes and, as appropriate, performs or calls for and verifies the accomplishment of, gear and flap retractions, power adjustments, and other required pilot-related activities at the required airspeed/Vspeeds within the tolerances established in the POH or AFM and SOP’s;
  • use the applicable noise abatement and wake turbulence avoidance procedures, as required;
  • accomplish or call for and verify the accomplishment of the appropriate checklist items;
  • maintain the desired heading within ±10° and the desired airspeed/V-speed within +10/-5 knots or the appropriate Vspeed range; and
  • comply with ATC clearances and instructions issued by ATC (or the individual conducting the competency check and simulating ATC).

2.9 Enroute Climb (ECL)

Aim

To determine the candidate’s ability to comply with enroute departure procedures as cleared.

Description

The enroute climb sequence starts when the aeroplane is in a clean configuration and has accelerated to an appropriate enroute climb speed and ends when the aeroplane has levelled off for the purpose of cruise flight.

The candidate will establish the aircraft on the enroute course, as cleared, in accordance with the Visual or Instrument Flight Rules, as applicable.

Performance Criteria

Assessment of the candidate’s ability to:

  • establish communications with ATC, using proper phraseology;
  • select and identify use the appropriate communications and navigation systems associated with the proposed departure phase;
  • perform the aircraft checklist items relative to the phase of flight;
  • intercept, in a timely manner, all tracks, radials and bearings appropriate to the procedure, route or clearance;
  • adhere to departure, noise abatement and transition procedures or ATC instructions;
  • comply, in a timely manner, with all instructions and airspace restrictions;
  • maintain proper aircraft control and flight within operating configurations and limitations;
  • maintain assigned headings within ±10 degrees;
  • maintain assigned tracks and bearings within ±10 degrees;
  • maintain altitude within ±100 feet;
  • exhibit adequate knowledge of two-way radio communications failure procedures; and
  • conduct the enroute climb phase to a point where the transition to the cruise environment is complete.

2.10 Cruise (CRZ)

Aim

To determine the candidate’s ability to establish the aeroplane in cruising flight at the pre-planned power settings in accordance with the POH/AFM and to determine the candidate’s ability to comply with enroute procedures as cleared.

Description

The cruise phase begins when the crew establishes the aircraft at a defined speed and predetermined constant initial or final cruise altitude and proceeds in the direction of a destination and ends with the beginning of Descent for the purpose of an approach.

The candidate will establish the aeroplane in cruising flight in accordance with the performance charts in the POH/AFM, placards displayed in the aeroplane or any other means authorized by the manufacturer. In addition, the candidate will maintain the aircraft on the enroute course and comply with enroute procedures, as cleared, in accordance with Visual or Instrument Flight Rules, as applicable. The candidate will demonstrate the proper programming and use of Flight Management Systems as applicable.

Performance Criteria

Assessment of the candidate’s ability to:

  • select and use the appropriate communications frequencies;
  • select and identify the navigation aids associated with the proposed enroute phase;
  • perform the aircraft checklist items relative to the phase of flight;
  • intercept, in a timely manner, all tracks, radials and bearings appropriate to the route or clearance;
  • adhere to the enroute procedures;
  • maintain proper aircraft control and flight within operating limitations;
  • maintain assigned heading, tracks or bearings within ±10 degrees, and altitude within ±100 feet;
  • set the power/throttle(s), propeller and mixture controls at the pre-planned power setting, as recommended by the POH/AFM;
  • synchronize propellers where applicable;
  • apply any additional measures recommended by the manufacturer with respect to aircraft configuration or other considerations; and
  • confirm cruise performance and demonstrate good decision-making to deal with the consequences of variances from the expected performance (ETA revision, fuel management).

2.11 Steep Turns

Aim

To determine the candidate’s ability to perform level and coordinated steep turns.

Description

At an operationally safe altitude recommended by the manufacturer, training syllabus, or other training directive, but in no case lower than 3,000 feet AGL, the candidate will execute at least one steep turn in each direction with a bank angle of 45° and a change in heading of at least 180° but not more than 360°. The candidate will specify the selected altitude, airspeed and initial heading before entering the turn.

For competency checks conducted in a simulator, the individual conducting the competency check need not evaluate steep turns when the competency check is for a fly-by wire aeroplane and steep turns were satisfactorily demonstrated during training.

Performance Criteria

Assessment of the candidate’s ability to:

  • where applicable, divide attention appropriately between outside visual references and instrument indications;
  • roll into and out of turns, using smooth and coordinated pitch, bank and power control to maintain the specified altitude within ±100 feet and the desired airspeed within ±10 knots;
  • establish the recommended entry airspeed;
  • maintain the bank angle of 45º within ±10º while in smooth stabilized flight;
  • after 180° of turn, roll out of the turn at approximately the same rate used to roll into the turn and reverse the direction of turn and repeat the manoeuvre in the opposite direction;
  • roll out of the turn at the reversal heading and the entry heading within ±10º; and
  • avoid any indication of an approaching stall, abnormal flight attitude, or exceeding any structural or operating limitation during any part of the manoeuvre.

2.12 Stalls

Aim

To determine the candidate’s ability to recognize and recover smoothly and correctly from an approach to a stall in various configurations and with a minimum loss of altitude where applicable.

Description

For the purpose of this manoeuvre, the required approach to a stall speed is the speed at which there is a perceptible buffet or other response to the initial stall entry. When performed in an aeroplane, conduct the approach to stalls at an altitude of at least 5000 feet AGL, and if above cloud at an altitude of at least 2000 feet above the cloud tops.

Competency checks require the following approaches to the stall:

  1. one in the take-off configuration, except where a zero-flap take-off configuration is normally used in that model and type of aeroplane;
  2. one in a clean configuration; and
  3. one in a landing configuration.

One of the approaches to stall will be performed while in a turn with a bank angle of between 15° and 30°.

For competency checks conducted in a simulator, individuals conducting a competency check need not evaluate approaches to stalls when the competency check is for a fly-by wire aeroplane and approaches to stalls have been satisfactorily demonstrated during training.

Performance Criteria

Assessment of the candidate’s ability to:

  • select an entry altitude that is in accordance with the AFM/POH or SOPs, but in no case lower than an altitude that will allow recovery to be safely completed at a minimum of 5,000 feet AGL. When accomplished in an FTD or flight simulator, the entry altitude may be at low, intermediate, or high altitude as appropriate for the aeroplane and the configuration, at the discretion of the individual conducting the competency check;
  • observe the area is clear of other aircraft prior to accomplishing an approach to a stall;
  • establish the specified configuration;
  • while maintaining altitude, slowly establishes the pitch attitude (using trim or elevator/stabilizer), bank angle, and power setting that will induce stall at the desired target airspeed;
  • announce the first indication of an impending stall (such as buffeting, stick shaker, decay of control effectiveness, and any other cues related to the specific aeroplane design characteristics) and initiates recovery or as directed by the individual conducting the competency check (using maximum power or as directed by the individual conducting the competency check);
  • avoid entering a stall;
  • promptly recover to a reference airspeed, altitude and heading, allowing only an acceptable altitude or airspeed loss, and heading deviation;
  • retract flaps as recommended; and retract the landing gear after a positive rate of climb is established, or as recommended by the manufacturer;
  • demonstrate smooth, positive control during entry, approach to a stall, and recovery; and
  • return to the altitude, heading and airspeed specified by the individual conducting the competency check.

2.13 Holding

Aim

To determine the candidate’s ability to establish the aircraft in a holding pattern using an actual or simulated ATC clearance.

Description

The holding sequence starts when a holding clearance is issued and ends when the aeroplane has exited the holding pattern.

In actual or simulated instrument conditions, the candidate must demonstrate adequate knowledge of a holding procedure for a standard or non-standard, published or non-published holding pattern. If appropriate, the candidate must demonstrate adequate knowledge of holding endurance, including, but not necessarily limited to, fuel on board, fuel flow while holding, fuel required to alternate, etc.

Based on an actual or simulated clearance, the candidate will select a suitable entry procedure, enter the hold and establish the aircraft in the holding pattern. Also, the candidate will demonstrate the proper programming and use of Flight Management Systems as applicable.

Performance Criteria

Assessment of the candidate’s ability to:

  • change to the recommended holding airspeed appropriate for the aeroplane and holding altitude, so as to cross the holding fix at or below maximum holding airspeed;
  • recognize arrival at the clearance limit or holding fix and initiate entry into the holding pattern;
  • follow appropriate entry procedures for a standard, non-standard, published, or non-published holding pattern;
  • report entering the hold;
  • comply with ATC reporting requirements;
  • use the proper timing criteria required by the holding altitude and ATC or examiner’s instructions;
  • comply with the holding pattern leg length when a DME distance is specified;
  • use the proper wind-drift correction techniques to accurately maintain the desired radial, track, courses, or bearing;
  • arrive over the holding fix as close as possible to the “expect further clearance” time;
  • maintain the appropriate airspeed/V-speed within ±10 knots, altitude within ±100 feet, headings/tracks/course within ±10° or within ½ scale deflection of the course deviation indicator, as applicable and accurately tracks radials, courses, and bearings; and
  • maintain proper aircraft control and flight within operating configurations and limitations while in the hold.

2.14 Descent (DST)

Aim

To determine the candidate’s ability to comply with visual or instrument arrival procedures, as applicable.

Description

Descent begins when the crew departs the cruise altitude for the purpose of an approach at a particular destination and ends when the crew initiates changes in aircraft configuration and/or speeds to facilitate an approach to a particular runway. It also may end by the crew initiating an “enroute climb" or "cruise" phase.

The candidate will complete the arrival procedures, as cleared, in accordance with Instrument Flight Rules or Visual Flight Rules, as applicable. In addition, the candidate will demonstrate the proper programming and use of Flight Management Systems as applicable.

Performance Criteria

Assessment of the candidate’s ability to:

  • demonstrate adequate knowledge of En Route Low and High Altitude Charts, STARs/FMS Procedures, Instrument Approach Procedure Charts, VFR Charts, as applicable, and related pilot and controller responsibilities;
  • select and identify the navigation aids associated with the proposed arrival phase;
  • select and correctly identify all instrument references, flight director and autopilot controls, and navigation and communications equipment associated with the arrival;
  • perform the aeroplane checklist items appropriate to the arrival;
  • select and establish communications with ATC, using proper phraseology;
  • comply, in a timely manner, with all ATC clearances, instructions, and restrictions;
  • demonstrate adequate knowledge of two-way communications failure procedures;
  • intercept, in a timely manner, all tracks, radials and bearings appropriate to the procedure, route, ATC clearance, or as directed by the individual conducting the competency check;
  • correctly adhere to visual or instrument arrival procedures;
  • adhere to airspeed restrictions and adjustments required by regulations, ATC, the POH/AFM, SOPs or the individual conducting the competency check;
  • establish, where appropriate, a rate of descent consistent with the aeroplane operating characteristics and safety;
  • maintain the appropriate airspeed/V-speed within ±10 knots, but not less than Vref, if applicable; heading ±10°; altitude within ±100 feet; and accurately tracks radials, courses, and bearings;
  • complies with the provisions of the Profile Descent, STAR, and other arrival procedures, as appropriate; and
  • maintain proper aircraft control and flight within operating limitations.

2.15-16 Approach (APR)

Aim

To determine the ability of the candidate to fly a stabilized precision and non-precision instrument approach in accordance with the published instrument approach procedure.

Description

The approach begins when the crew initiates changes in aircraft configuration and/or speeds enabling the aircraft to manoeuvre for the purpose of approaching a particular runway, and ends when the aircraft is in the landing configuration and the crew is dedicated to land on that runway. It may also end by the crew initiating an “initial climb” or “go-around” phase.

The candidate will demonstrate at least two instrument approaches performed in accordance with procedures and limitations in the Canada Air Pilot or in the equivalent foreign publications, or in the operator’s approved approach procedure for the approach facility used. Where practicable the candidate will fly one precision approach and one a non-precision approach; and conditions permitting, where authorised in SOPs a circling approach. For multiengine aeroplanes competency checks, the candidate will complete at least one approach with a simulated failure of one powerplant. The simulated powerplant failure should occur before initiating the final approach segment and must continue to touchdown or throughout the missed approach procedure.

For competency checks conducted in a simulator, one of the approaches will be a precision, and one a non-precision approach. In addition, where authorized to conduct circling approaches in their COM, the flight crew will demonstrate during an initial competency check and annually thereafter one approach and manoeuvre to land using a scene approved for circling. The candidates will demonstrate the proper programming and use of Flight Management Systems as applicable.

Note: On a competency check that will generate an initial Instrument Rating, a precision approach is mandatory.

Note: The candidate may fly at altitudes higher than the applicable minimum altitudes depicted on the approach chart, but descent during the final segment of the approach should result in reaching the MDA at a distance from the MAP approximately equal to the recommended minimum visibility. The minimum altitudes depicted on the approach chart represent hard approach floor heights above terrain or other obstacles determined during the approach design process. Descent below such heights compromises the approach design safety factor.

Note: In accordance with the exemption to CAR 602.128(2)(b), a pilot may descend below the MDA which is likely to occur during a missed approach following a stabilized constant descent angle non precision approach. This exemption is subject to the following conditions:

  • 1. the pilot-in-command will conduct a final approach with a planned stabilized constant descent angle (SCDA) from the final approach fix to a normal landing runway threshold crossing height of 50 feet;
  • 2. the pilot-in-command will initiate a missed approach upon reaching the earliest of either the Decision Altitude (Minimum Descent Altitude), or the missed approach point, or the required visual reference necessary to continue to land has not been established;
  • 3. a SCDA approach will not be conducted on procedures requiring remote altimeter setting correction;
  • 4. the instrument approach procedure flown is to straight-in minima, and the final approach course will not be more than 15 degrees from runway centreline; and
  • 5. the pilot-in-command and the private air operator will maintain compliance with the conditions outlined in the schedule attached with the exemption which pertains to a training program, Standard Operating Procedures and Required Aircraft Equipment.

Non-Precision Instrument Approach

Performance Criteria

Assessment of the candidate’s ability to:

  • select and comply with the VOR/ LOC/ LOC BC or NDB instrument approach procedure to be performed;
  • establish two-way communications with ATC using the proper communications phraseology and techniques, either personally, or, if appropriate, directs co-pilot/safety pilot to do so, as required for the phase of flight or approach segment;
  • comply in a timely manner, with all clearances, instructions, and procedures issued by ATC and advise accordingly if unable to comply;
  • select, tune, identify, confirm and monitor the operational status of ground and aircraft navigation equipment to be used for the approach procedure;
  • establish the appropriate aircraft configuration and airspeed/V-speed considering turbulence, wind shear, microburst conditions, or other meteorological and operating conditions;
  • complete the aircraft check list items appropriate to the phase of flight or approach segment, including engine out approach and landing checklist, as appropriate;
  • apply altitude corrections to all minimum altitudes depicted on the approach chart used when aerodrome temperatures are 0 degrees Celsius or colder in accordance with the General Section of the Canada Air Pilot;
  • prior to final approach course, maintain declared altitudes (±100 feet) without descending below applicable minimum altitudes, and maintain headings (±10 degrees);
  • apply necessary adjustment to the published Minimum Descent Altitude (MDA) and visibility criteria for the aeroplane approach category when required, such as NOTAMS, inoperative aeroplane and ground navigation equipment, inoperative visual aids associated with the landing environment;
  • on the intermediate and final segments of the final approach course:
    1. maintain VOR/ LOC/ LOC BC tracking within ½ scale deflection of the course deviation indicator or within 5 degrees of the desired track in the case of an NDB approach;
    2. fly the approach in a stabilized manner without descending below the applicable minimum altitudes depicted on the approach chart (+as required/–0 feet);
    3. descend to and accurately maintain the Minimum Descent Altitude (MDA) and track to the Missed Approach Point (MAP) or to the recommended minimum visibility that would permit completion of the visual portion of the approach with a normal rate of descent and minimal manoeuvring;
  • maintain declared approach airspeeds (+10/-5 knots); and
  • initiate the missed approach procedure, if the required visual references for the intended runway are not obtained at the MAP; or
  • continue to a normal landing from a straight-in or circling approach as required.

GPS Approach

Performance Criteria

Assessment of the candidate’s ability to:

  • select and comply with the GPS instrument approach procedure to be performed;
  • establish two-way communications with ATC using the proper communications phraseology and techniques, either personally, or, if appropriate, directs co-pilot/safety pilot to do so, as required for the phase of flight or approach segment;
  • comply in a timely manner, with all clearances, instructions, and procedures issued by ATC and advise accordingly if unable to comply
  • retrieve the GPS approach from the database, conduct a Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring (RAIM) check or a multi-sensor RNAV check and verify the approach waypoints used for the approach procedure;
  • establish the appropriate aircraft configuration and airspeed/V-speed considering turbulence, wind shear, microburst conditions, or other meteorological and operating conditions
  • complete the aircraft check list items appropriate to the phase of flight or approach segment, including engine out approach and landing checklist, as appropriate;
  • apply altitude corrections to all minimum altitudes depicted on the approach chart used when aerodrome temperatures are 0 degrees Celsius or colder in accordance with the General Section of the Canada Air Pilot.
  • prior to final approach course, maintain declared altitudes (±100 feet) without descending below applicable minimum altitudes and maintain headings (±10 degrees);
  • apply necessary adjustment to the published Minimum Descent Altitude (MDA) and visibility criteria for the aeroplane approach category when required, such as NOTAMS, inoperative aeroplane and ground navigation equipment, inoperative visual aids associated with the landing environment.
  • take appropriate action in the event that a RAIM alert is displayed when the aircraft is established on the final approach course;
  • on the intermediate and final segments of the final approach course:
    1. maintain GPS track bar within ½ scale deflection;
    2. fly the approach in a stabilized manner without descending below the applicable minimum altitudes depicted on the approach chart (+as required/–0 feet);
    3. announce the approach active mode within 2 nm prior to reaching the Final Approach Waypoint (FAWP) inbound;
  • descend to and accurately maintain the Minimum Descent Altitude (MDA) and track to the Missed Approach Waypoint (MAWP) or to the recommended minimum visibility that would permit completion of the visual portion of the approach with a normal rate of descent and minimal manoeuvring;
  • maintain the declared approach airspeeds within +10/-5 knots; and
  • initiate the missed approach procedure when the required visual references for the intended runway are not obtained at the MAWP; or
  • continue to a normal landing from a straight-in or circling approach as required.

Precision Instrument Approach

Performance Criteria

Assessment of the candidate’s ability to:

  • select and comply with the ILS instrument approach procedure to be performed;
  • establish two-way communications with ATC using the proper communications phraseology and techniques, either personally, or, if appropriate, directs co-pilot/safety pilot to do so, as required for the phase of flight or approach segment;
  • comply in a timely manner, with all clearances, instructions, and procedures issued by ATC and advise accordingly if unable to comply;
  • select, tune, identify and confirm the operational status of ground and aircraft navigation equipment to be used for the approach procedure;
  • establish the appropriate aircraft configuration and airspeed/V-speed considering turbulence, wind shear, microburst conditions, or other meteorological and operating conditions;
  • complete the aircraft check list items appropriate to the phase of flight or approach segment, including engine out approach and landing checklist, as appropriate;
  • apply altitude corrections to all minimum altitudes depicted on the approach chart used when aerodrome temperatures are 0 degrees Celsius or colder in accordance with the General Section of the Canada Air Pilot;
  • prior to final approach course, maintain declared or assigned altitudes within ±100 feet without descending below applicable minimum altitudes and maintain headings within ±10 degrees;
  • apply necessary adjustment to the published Decision Height (DH) and visibility criteria for the aeroplane approach category when required, such as NOTAMS, inoperative aeroplane and ground navigation equipment, inoperative visual aids associated with the landing environment;
  • on final approach course, allow no more than ½ scale deflection of the localizer and/or glideslope indications;
  • maintain declared approach airspeeds within +10/-5 knots;
  • maintain a stabilized descent to the Decision Height (DH) to permit completion of the visual portion of the approach and landing with minimal manoeuvring; and
  • initiate the missed approach procedure, upon reaching the DH, when the required visual references for the intended runway are not obtained.

Circling Approach

Performance Criteria

Assessment of the candidate’s ability to:

  • demonstrate adequate knowledge of circling approach categories, speeds, and comply with procedures to a specified runway;
  • in simulated or actual instrument conditions to MDA, accomplish the circling approach selected by the individual conducting the competency check;
  • demonstrate sound judgment and knowledge of the aeroplane manoeuvring capabilities throughout the circling approach;
  • confirm the direction of traffic and adheres to all restrictions and instructions issued by ATC;
  • descend at a rate that ensures arrival at the MDA at, or prior to, a point from which a normal circle-to-land manoeuvre can be accomplished;
  • avoids descent below the appropriate circling MDA or exceeding the visibility criteria until in a position (generally within 30° of the extended runway centerline) from which a descent to a normal landing can be made;
  • manoeuvre the aeroplane, after reaching the authorized circling approach altitude, by visual references to the aerodrome or runway environment and maintain a flight path that permits a normal landing on a runway at least 90° from the final approach course;
  • perform the procedure without excessive manoeuvring and without exceeding the normal operating limits of the aeroplane (the angle of bank should not exceed 30° and the rate of descent should be consistent with normal operations));
  • maintain the desired altitude within -0, +100 feet, heading/track within ±10°, the airspeed/Vspeed within +10/-5 knots, but not less than the airspeed as specified in the POH or the AFM;
  • use the appropriate aeroplane configuration in accordance with the POH, AFM and/or SOPs for normal and abnormal situations and procedures, where applicable;
  • turn in the appropriate direction, when a missed approach is dictated during the circling approach, and uses the correct procedure and aeroplane configuration; and
  • perform all procedures required for the circling approach and aeroplane control in a smooth, positive, and timely manner.

    NOTE – A circling manoeuvre is the term used to describe the manoeuvring required to suitably position an aeroplane for landing on a particular runway, following the conduct of an instrument approach to a different runway or to the same runway when that runway is not suitably aligned for a straight-in landing.

2.17a Go-around (GOA)

Aim

To determine the candidate’s ability to carry out a successful missed approach under IFR or go-around under VFR, as applicable.

Description

The go-around begins when the crew aborts the descent to the planned landing runway during the “approach” phase and ends after speed and configuration are established at a defined maneuvering altitude or to continue the climb for the purpose of cruise.

Following an instrument approach, the candidate will conduct a missed approach at any time from intercepting final approach to touch down on the runway. Except where ATC amends it, the candidate must follow the published missed approach profile.

Performance Criteria

Assessment of the candidate’s ability to:

  • demonstrate adequate knowledge of missed approach procedures associated with standard instrument approaches;
  • initiate the missed approach procedure promptly by the timely application of power, establish the proper climb attitude, and reduces drag in accordance with the approved procedures;
  • report to beginning the missed approach procedure;
  • comply with the published or alternate missed approach procedure;
  • report with ATC anytime the aircraft is unable to comply with a clearance, restriction, or climb gradient;
  • follow the recommended aeroplane check list items appropriate to the go-around procedure;
  • request a clearance, if appropriate, to the alternate airport, another approach, a holding fix, clearance limit, or as directed by the individual conducting the competency check;
  • maintain recommended airspeeds within +10/-5 knots;
  • maintain heading, track or bearing within ±10 degrees; and
  • climb to and maintain the published missed approach altitude, or as cleared by ATC or the examiner within ±100 feet.

2.17b Rejected Landing At 50 Ft.

Aim

To determine the candidate’s ability to carry out a successful rejected landing.

Description

The candidate will conduct a rejected landing after having completed the instrument portion of the approach with the runway is in sight, the aircraft configured for landing and in final descent to the runway. This manoeuvre will be initiated at approximately 50 feet above the runway and just about over the runway threshold. The individual conducting the competency check may combine the rejected landing with the missed approach.

Performance Criteria

Assessment of the candidate’s ability to:

  • demonstrate adequate knowledge of a rejected landing procedure including the conditions that dictate a rejected landing, the importance of a timely decision, the recommended airspeed/V-speeds, and also the applicable “clean-up” procedure;
  • make a timely decision to reject the landing for actual or simulated circumstances and make appropriate notification when safety-of-flight is not an issue;
  • apply the appropriate power setting for the flight condition and establish a pitch attitude necessary to obtain the desired performance;
  • retract the wing flaps/drag devices and landing gear, if appropriate, in the correct sequence and at a safe altitude, establishes a positive rate of climb and the appropriate airspeed/V-speed within +10/-5 knots;
  • trims the aeroplane as necessary, and maintain the proper ground track during the rejected landing procedure; and
  • accomplish the appropriate checklist items in a timely manner in accordance with approved procedures.

2.18 Landing (LDG)

Aim

To determine the candidate’s ability to carry out a normal or crosswind landing and, where practical, a landing from an instrument approach by visual descent from an approach MDA or DA.

Description

Landing begins when the aeroplane is in the landing configuration and the crew is dedicated to touch down on a specific runway; ends when the speed permits the aircraft to be maneuvered by means of taxiing for the purpose of arriving at a parking area. It may also end by the crew initiating a “go-around” phase from a rejected landing.

The candidate will demonstrate:

  1. one normal (in a normal landing configuration with all engines operating) landing which, where practical, be conducted without external or internal glideslope information;
  2. one landing from an instrument approach and, where prevailing conditions prevent an actual landing, an approach to a point where a landing could have been made. This is not required where the operator's certificate authorizes operations under day VFR only, or the operator assigns the pilot to day VFR flights only;
  3. one crosswind landing, where practicable, under existing meteorological, runway and airport traffic conditions;
  4. one landing and manoeuvring to that landing with a simulated failure of 50 percent of the available engines; and
  5. one landing under simulated circling approach conditions except that where prevailing conditions prevent a landing, an approach to a point where a landing could have been made.

Note: Any of the landings and approaches to landings specified in this section may be combined. A minimum of two landings is required.

Performance Criteria

Assessment of the candidate’s ability to:

  • demonstrate adequate knowledge of normal and crosswind approaches and landings including recommended approach angles, airspeeds, V-speeds, configurations, performance limitations, and ATC or examiner instructions;
  • consider factors to be applied to the approach and landing such as displaced thresholds, meteorological conditions, NOTAMs, wake turbulence, wind shear, microburst, gust/wind factors, visibility, runway surface, braking conditions, and other related safety factors (as appropriate to the aeroplane);
  • establish the approach and landing configuration appropriate for the runway and meteorological conditions, and adjusts the powerplant controls as required;
  • perform the aircraft checklist items relative to the phase of flight;
  • maintains a ground track that ensures the desired traffic pattern will be flown, taking into account any obstructions and ATC or instructions from the individual conducting the competency check;
  • verify existing wind conditions, makes proper correction for drift, and maintains a precise ground track;
  • maintain a stabilized approach and the desired airspeed/V-speed within +10/-5 knots.
  • execute a landing from an approach MDA or DA when the required visual references for the intended runway are obtained;
  • accomplish a smooth, positively controlled transition from final approach to touchdown or to a point in the opinion of the individual conducting the competency check that a safe full stop landing could be made;
  • maintain positive directional control and crosswind correction during the after-landing roll;
  • use spoilers, prop reversing, thrust reversing, wheel brakes, and other drag/braking devices, as appropriate, in such a manner to bring the aeroplane to a safe stop; and
  • complete the applicable after-landing checklist items in a timely manner and as recommended by the manufacturer.

2.19-20 Ground Arrival / Flight Close (FLC)

Aim

To determine the candidate’s ability to conduct after landing taxi in, arrival/engine shutdown, post-flight and flight close procedures as appropriate.

Description

The candidate will demonstrate the ability to manoeuvre the aircraft under its own power to an arrival area for parking, shut down the engine(s) and ancillary systems and conduct required post flight procedures such as securing the aircraft.

Performance Criteria

Assessment of the candidate’s ability to:

  • demonstrate proficiency by maintaining correct and positive control;
  • consider the safety of nearby persons or property by maintaining proper look-out, spacing between aircraft and obstructions;
  • accomplish the applicable checklist items and performs the recommended procedures;
  • maintain the desired taxi speed;
  • comply with instructions issued by ATC (or the examiner simulating ATC);
  • observe runway hold lines, localizer and glide slope critical areas, and other surface control markings and lighting to prevent a runway incursion;
  • maintain constant vigilance and aeroplane control during the taxi operation; and
  • record forms/logs and flight time/discrepancies.

2.21 PNF/PM Duties

Aim

To determine the candidate’s ability to demonstrate proper division of PNF/PM duties in accordance with the COM and SOPs.

Description

Each pilot will demonstrate PNF/PM duties sufficient to determine compliance with and knowledge of, aircraft procedures and SOPs. This will include normal and abnormal procedures while operating as PNF/PM.

Flight crew may be required to conduct PNF/PM duties from a seat position that they do not normally occupy (competency check with two Captains or two F/Os). In this situation, the training unit will have provided PNF training to the candidates in the seat they will occupy during the competency check.

When a single flight crewmember must be assessed in a multi-crew environment, the individual conducting the competency check must allow for the assessment of the pilot’s PNF skills by providing exposure to situations requiring good crew coordination between the assisting pilot as PF and the competency check candidate as PNF in accordance with SOPs and instructions found in the operator’s Operations Manual. Examples of such situations include both normal and abnormal operations, such as:

  • (a) a normal take-off, visual circuit (where possible) and landing, an instrument approach with a circling manoeuvre (if applicable) to a landing, a visual go-around manoeuvre or a missed approach procedure (if applicable); and
  • (b) a simulated power loss or an emergency procedure and/or abnormal situation.

Performance Criteria

Assessment of the candidate’s ability to:

  • adhere to PNF/PM duties assigned to crew position as outlined in the COM and/or SOP’s;
  • complete necessary duties assigned by the pilot flying;
  • maintain crew discipline during normal and abnormal procedures;
  • demonstrate familiarity with the procedures contained in the QRH or paper checklist;
  • demonstrate FMS inputs, as applicable;
  • maintain situational awareness as a crew member;
  • effectively share cockpit workload; and
  • maintain crew awareness, or attention to flight mode annunciations.

2.22a Engine Failure

Aim

To determine the candidate’s ability to maintain control of the aircraft and carry out the appropriate engine failure procedures in accordance with the POH/AFM and/or SOPs.

Description

The pilot will demonstrate the ability to maintain control and safely handle malfunctions from a simulated engine failure. The engine failures in this section exclude an engine failure on the runway followed by a rejected take-off, and an engine failure on initial climb.

Engine Failure – Multi-Engine Aeroplane

Performance Criteria

Assessment of the candidate’s ability to:

  • recognize an engine failure or the need to shut down an engine as simulated by the individual conducting the competency check;
  • complete engine failure vital action checks from memory;
  • maintain positive aeroplane control. Establish a bank of approximately 5°, if required, or as recommended by the manufacturer, to maintain coordinated flight, and properly trim for that condition;
  • set powerplant controls, reduce drag as necessary, correctly identify and verify the inoperative powerplant(s) after the failure (or simulated failure);
  • maintain the operating powerplant(s) within acceptable operating limits;
  • establish the best engine inoperative airspeed as appropriate to the aircraft and condition of flight;
  • establish and maintain the recommended flight attitude and configuration for the best performance for all manoeuvring necessary for the phase of flight;
  • follow the prescribed aeroplane checklist, and verify the procedures for securing the inoperative powerplant(s);
  • determine the cause for the powerplant(s) failure and if a restart is a viable option;
  • maintain desired altitude within ±100 feet, when a constant altitude is specified and is within the capability of the aeroplane;
  • maintain the desired airspeed within ±10 knots;
  • maintain the desired heading within ±10° of the specified heading;
  • demonstrate proper powerplant restart procedures (if appropriate) in accordance approved procedure/checklist or the manufacturer’s recommended procedures and pertinent checklist items; and
  • monitor all functions of the operating engine and make necessary adjustments.

Engine Failure – Single-Engine Aeroplane

Performance Criteria

Assessment of the candidate’s ability to:

  • demonstrate adequate knowledge of the flight characteristics, approach and forced (emergency) landing procedures, and related procedures to use in the event of a powerplant failure (as appropriate to the aeroplane);
  • maintain positive control throughout the manoeuvre;
  • establish and maintain the recommended best glide airspeed, ±10 knots, and configuration during a simulated powerplant failure;
  • select a suitable airport or landing area and touchdown zone, which is within the performance capability of the aeroplane;
  • establish a proper flight pattern to the selected airport or landing area, taking into account altitude, wind, terrain, obstructions, and other pertinent operational factors;
  • follow the emergency checklist items appropriate to the aeroplane;
  • determine the cause for the simulated powerplant failure (if altitude permits) and if a restart is a viable option;
  • simulate an appropriate radio call, when time permits;
  • perform an effective passenger emergency safety review; and
  • use configuration devices, such as landing gear and flaps in a manner recommended by the manufacturer.

2.22b Power Loss on Initial Climb

Aim

To determine the candidate’s ability to recover from an engine failure at the most critical stage of flight.

Description

This power loss sequence begins when the powerplant failure is introduced and ends when the aeroplane is in a clean configuration and accelerates to an appropriate enroute climb speed.

For a multi-engine aeroplane competency check conducted in a simulator, the pilot will demonstrate a take-off with failure of the critical engine introduced at a speed greater than V1 and at an altitude of less than 50 feet AGL; or at a speed as close as possible to, but greater than V1 when V1 and V2, or V1 and Vr are identical.

For a multi-engine aeroplane competency check conducted in the aircraft, the pilot will demonstrate a simulated engine failure after take-off at a safe altitude and no lower than V2 + 10 airspeed and appropriate to the aeroplane type under the prevailing conditions. If the AFM does not provide V speeds, the engine failure will occur as close to the take-off safety speed plus 10 knots as is safe and appropriate to the aeroplane type under the prevailing conditions.

Performance Criteria

Assessment of the candidate’s ability to:

  • recognize the simulated engine failure promptly;
  • control the aeroplane;
  • set the power controls and reduce drag by using control application, in the proper sequence;
  • identify and verify the inoperative engine;
  • bank toward the operating engine, as recommended for best performance;
  • maintain directional control within ±10 degrees of assigned heading;
  • establish a positive rate of climb, if the aeroplane is capable;
  • accelerate to and maintain one engine inoperative required airspeed/Vspeeds and trim the aeroplane, as required;
  • locate the necessary controls and switches to carry out and complete the emergency procedures in accordance with the approved emergency procedures checklist (Engine Failure during Takeoff or Overshoot) by:
    1. completing prescribed engine failure vital action checks from memory if required;
    2. completing the emergency drill, in accordance with the emergency checklist; and
    3. completing engine shutdown checks and other necessary checks in accordance with the appropriate emergency checklist(s); and
  • monitor the operating engine and take appropriate action to keep the operating engine parameters within limitations.

2.23-27 Abnormal/Emergencies

Aim

To determine the candidate’s ability to complete recommended checks and procedures in accordance with the POH, AFM, or other applicable publications in the event of system malfunctions or other emergencies.

Description

System malfunctions will consist of a selection adequate to determine that the pilot has satisfactory knowledge and ability to safely handle malfunctions. The candidate will be required to demonstrate the use of as many simulated abnormal and emergency procedures as is necessary to confirm that the pilot has an adequate knowledge and ability to perform these procedures.

Performance Criteria

Assessment of the candidate’s ability to:

  • demonstrate adequate knowledge of the emergency procedures appropriate to the approved AFM (as may be determined by the individual conducting the competency check) relating to the particular aeroplane type;
  • promptly identify the malfunctions;
  • promptly apply correct checks and procedures in accordance with the POH/AFM, or other approved publication;
  • consider and apply any restrictions or limitations to the operation of a system(s) and procedures in order to continue the flight;
  • demonstrate knowledge and discipline in the use of the electronic checklist and alerting system, as applicable; and
  • develop a reasonable course of action for the remainder of the flight.

Chapter 3 - Flight Test Exercises (Helicopter)

Note: The decimal numbers used in the section titles found in this chapter correspond to the flight sequence numbers used on Transport Canada form 26-0279 (Flight Test Report for Pilot Proficiency Check – Helicopter).

3.1 Technical Knowledge

Aim

To determine the candidate’s ability to demonstrate a practical knowledge of selected systems, components, normal, abnormal and emergency procedures and operate aircraft systems in accordance with the POH/RFM.

Description

The individual conducting the competency check will conduct an equipment knowledge assessment requiring the candidate to demonstrate a practical knowledge of the airframe, engine, major components and systems including the normal, abnormal, alternate and emergency operating procedures and limitations relating thereto.

The equipment knowledge assessment is optional when the pilot’s training record contains a valid written examination, from initial or recurrent training.

Pilots must demonstrate a practical knowledge of settling with power, vortex ring state, and dynamic rollover to show that they are aware of the causes, prevention and appropriate recovery procedures.

Performance Criteria

Assessment of the candidate’s ability to explain the operation of the following systems:

  • landing gear (if appropriate);
  • powerplant;
  • rotor systems;
  • fuel system;
  • oil system;
  • hydraulic system;
  • electrical system;
  • environmental systems;
  • avionics and communications (autopilot; flight director; Electronic Flight Indicating Systems (EFIS); Flight Management System(s) (FMS); Long Range Navigation (LORAN) systems; Doppler Radar; Inertial Navigation Systems (INS); Global Navigation Satellite System (GPS/DGPS/WGPS); VOR, NDB, ILS/MLS, RNAV systems and components; indicating devices; transponder; TCAS; GPWS/EGPWS/TAWS if applicable and emergency locator transmitter);
  • ice protection;
  • crewmember and passenger equipment (survival gear, emergency exits, evacuation procedures, crew duties, quick donning oxygen mask for crewmembers);
  • flight controls;
  • pitot-static system with associated instruments and the power source for the flight instruments; and
  • systems and components listed above with regard to the POH or RFM, the Minimum Equipment List (MEL), if appropriate, and the Operations Specifications, if applicable.

3.2 Flight Planning (FLP)

Aim

To determine the candidate’s ability to plan a flight utilizing performance charts, weight and balance calculations, conforming to the VFR or IFR flight rules as applicable and retrieving and interpreting aviation weather information necessary for the safe conduct of the flight.

Description

The flight planning phase begins when the flight crew initiates the use of flight planning information facilities and becomes dedicated to a flight based upon a route and an aircraft; ends when the crew arrives at the aircraft for the purpose of the planned flight or the crew initiates a “Flight Close” phase.

The individual conducting the competency check will conduct a flight planning practical assessment requiring the candidate to demonstrate a knowledge of the operator’s Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) and the Helicopter Flight Manual including helicopter performance charts where applicable, loading, weight and balance procedures and Flight Manual Supplements. This practical assessment should be conducted while using the operator’s specific operational flight plan where available.

The flight planning assessment is optional when the pilot’s training record contains a valid written examination, from initial or recurrent training.

Performance Criteria

Assessment of the candidate’s ability to:

  • demonstrate a practical knowledge of performance and limitations, including a the adverse effects of exceeding any limitation;
  • demonstrate proficient use of (as appropriate to the helicopter) performance charts, tables, graphs, or other data relating to items, such as:
    1. takeoff performance—all engines, engine(s) operating
    2. climb performance including segmented climb performance; with all engines operating—with one or more engine(s) inoperative, and with other engine malfunctions as may be appropriate
    3. cruise performance
    4. fuel consumption, range, and endurance
    5. go-around from rejected landings
    6. other performance data (appropriate to the helicopter)
  • describe (as appropriate to the helicopter) the airspeeds used during specific phases of flight;
  • describe the effects of meteorological conditions upon performance characteristics and to correctly apply these factors to a specific chart, table, graph, or other performance data;
  • compute the centre-of-gravity location for a specific load condition (as specified by the examiner), including adding, removing, or shifting weight;
  • determine if the computed centre-of-gravity is within the forward and aft centre-of-gravity limits, and that lateral fuel balance is within limits for takeoff and landing for the proposed flight;
  • demonstrate acceptable planning and knowledge of procedures in applying operational factors affecting helicopter performance;
  • select an appropriate route, altitude and alternate;
  • locate and apply information essential to the flight;
  • obtain and correctly interpret applicable NOTAM information;
  • calculate the estimated time enroute and total fuel requirement based on factors such as power settings, operating altitude or flight level, wind and fuel reserve requirements;
  • determine that the required performance for the planned flight is within the helicopter’s capability and operating limitations;
  • make a competent “GO/NO-GO” decision based on available information for the planned flight;
  • complete a flight plan in a manner that reflects the conditions of the proposed flight;
  • demonstrate sufficient practical operational knowledge of the regulatory requirements relating to instrument and visual flying, as applicable; and
  • retrieve and interpret items such as weather reports and forecasts; pilot and radar reports; surface analysis charts; significant weather prognostics; winds and temperatures aloft; freezing level charts, NOTAMS and SIGMETs.

3.3 Pre-flight (PRF)

Aim

To determine the candidate’s ability to systematically complete internal and external checks in accordance with the POH/RFM and SOPs to ensure that the helicopter is ready for the intended flight. The candidate will also demonstrate knowledge of how to deal with irregularities, if found.

Description

The pre-flight begins with flight crew arrival at an aircraft for the purpose of flight and ends when the crew departs the parking position and/or starts the engine(s). It may also end by the crew initiating a “Post-flight” phase.

The candidate will determine that the helicopter is ready for the intended flight. The pre-flight helicopter inspection will include a visual inspection of the exterior and interior of the helicopter, locating each required item and explaining the purpose of the inspection in accordance with the POH/RFM and SOPs.

The candidate will carry out in accordance with the POH/RFM a visual check for fuel quantity, proper grade of fuel, fuel contamination and oil levels. If, due to aircraft design, the POH/RFM does not prescribe a visual check of fuel levels, the candidate will use fuel chits, fuel logs or other credible procedures to confirm the amount of fuel on board the aircraft. . In addition, the candidate will demonstrate programming and use of available flight management, navigation and guidance systems.

At the request of the individual conducting the competency check, the candidate will conduct an oral passenger safety briefing where applicable.

Performance Criteria

Assessment of the candidate’s ability to:

  • demonstrate an adequate knowledge of the pre-flight inspection procedures, while explaining briefly the purpose of inspecting the items, which must be checked, how to detect possible defects and the corrective action to take;
  • demonstrate adequate knowledge of the operational status of the helicopter by locating and explaining the significance and importance of related documents, such as airworthiness and registration certificates, operating limitations, handbooks, and manuals, minimum equipment list (MEL) (if appropriate), weight and balance data and maintenance requirements, tests, and appropriate records applicable to the proposed flight or operation; and maintenance that may be performed by the pilot or other designated crewmember;
  • use the approved checklist to inspect the helicopter externally and internally;
  • use the challenge-and-response (or other approved) method with the other crewmember(s), where applicable to accomplish the checklist procedures;
  • verifiy the helicopter is safe for flight by emphasizing (as appropriate) the need to look at and explain the purpose of inspecting items, such as:
    1. powerplant, including controls and indicators
    2. fuel quantity, grade, type, contamination safeguards, and servicing procedures
    3. oil quantity, grade, and type
    4. hydraulic fluid quantity, grade, type, and servicing procedures
    5. oxygen quantity, pressures, servicing procedures, and associated systems and equipment for crew and passengers
    6. hull, landing gear, float devices, brakes, and steering system
    7. tires for condition, inflation, and correct mounting, where applicable
    8. fire protection/detection systems for proper operation, servicing, pressures, and discharge indications
    9. pneumatic system pressures and servicing
    10. ground environmental systems for proper servicing and operation
    11. auxiliary power unit (APU) for servicing and operation
    12. flight control systems including trim
    13. anti-ice, deice systems, ice warning systems, servicing, and operation
  • comply with the provisions of the appropriate Operations Specifications, if applicable, as they pertain to the particular helicopter and operation;
  • demonstrate proper operation of all applicable helicopter systems;
  • note any discrepancies, determine if the helicopter is airworthy and safe for flight, or takes the proper corrective action with respect to unsatisfactory conditions identified; and
  • check the general area around the helicopter for hazards to the safety of the helicopter and personnel.

3.4 Engine Start/Depart (ESD)

Aim

To determine the candidate’s ability to complete the correct engine start procedures including the use of an auxiliary power unit (APU) if available or external power source (if required) under various atmospheric conditions, conducting warm-up, run-up and system checks, recognize normal and abnormal situations, and take proper action in the event of a malfunction.

Description

Engine start/depart begins when the flight crew takes action to have the aircraft moved from the parked position and/or takes switch action to energize the engine(s). It ends when the aircraft begins to move under its own power or the crew initiates an "Arrival/Engine Shutdown" phase.

The candidate will demonstrate the proper use of the pre-start, start and pre-taxi checklists and check the appropriate radio communications, navigation and electronic equipment and selection of the appropriate communications and navigation frequencies prior to flight.

Performance Criteria

Assessment of the candidate’s ability to:

  • ensure ground safety procedures are followed during the before-start, start, and after-start phases;
  • ensure the appropriate use of ground crew personnel during the start procedures;
  • perform all items of the start procedures by systematically following the approved checklist items for the before-start, start, and after-start phases;
  • demonstrate sound judgment and operating practices in those instances where specific instructions or checklist items are not published;
  • use the challenge-and-response (or other approved) method with the other crewmember(s), where applicable, to accomplish the checklist procedures;
  • coordinate with ground crew and ensures adequate clearance prior to moving any devices, such as door, hatches, and flight control surfaces;
  • demonstrate adequate knowledge of the pre-takeoff checks by stating the reason for checking the items outlined on the approved checklist and explaining how to detect possible malfunctions;
  • divide attention properly inside and outside cockpit;
  • ensure that all systems are within their normal operating range prior to beginning, during the performance of, and at the completion of those checks required by the approved checklist;
  • explain, as may be requested by the individual conducting the competency check, any normal or abnormal system operating characteristic or limitation; and the corrective action for a specific malfunction;
  • determine if the helicopter is safe for the proposed flight or requires maintenance;
  • determine the helicopter’s takeoff performance, considering such factors as wind, density altitude, weight, temperature, and pressure altitude.
  • determine airspeeds/V-speeds and properly sets all instrument references, flight director and autopilot controls, and navigation and communications equipment;
  • review procedures for emergency and abnormal situations, which may be encountered during takeoff, and states the corrective action required of the pilot in command and other concerned crewmembers;
  • perform an avionics and navigation equipment cockpit check; and
  • obtain and correctly interpret the takeoff and departure clearance as issued by ATC.

3.5 Taxi-out/Hover (TXO)

Aim

To determine the candidate’s ability to manoeuvre the helicopter safely in the hover and avoid unnecessary interference with the movement of other traffic as applicable.

Description

Taxi-out begins when the crew moves the helicopter under its own power and ends when thrust is increased for the purpose of take-off or the crew initiates a “Taxi-in” phase.

The candidate will taxi the aircraft to and from the runway in use and as otherwise required during the competency check. While taxiing, the candidate will follow taxiing procedures. In addition, the taxi check will include the use of the taxiing checklist, taxiing in compliance with clearances and instructions issued by the appropriate air traffic control unit or by the individual conducting the competency check. Where a second-in-command undergoes the competency check, the individual conducting the competency check will evaluate taxing to the extent practicable from the second-in-command position.

Performance Criteria

Assessment of the candidate’s ability to:

  • demonstrate adequate knowledge of safe taxi procedures (as appropriate to the helicopter);
  • demonstrate proficiency by maintaining correct and positive helicopter control;
  • maintain proper spacing on other aircraft, obstructions, and persons;
  • accomplish the applicable checklist items and perform recommended procedures;
  • maintain desired track and speed;
  • perform an instrument and flight control check;
  • comply with instructions/clearances issued by ATC (or the examiner simulating ATC);
  • observe runway hold lines, localizer and glide slope critical areas and other surface control markings and lighting;
  • maintain constant vigilance and helicopter control during taxi operation to prevent runway incursion; and
  • demonstrate knowledge of procedures for Reduced Visibility Operations Plan (RVOP) and Low Visibility Operations Plan (RVOP) where applicable.

3.6-7 Take-off (TOF)

Aim

To determine the candidate’s ability to take off safely using the correct technique and procedure for the actual wind conditions, runway surface and length, and to assess the possibility of further conditions such as wind shear and wake turbulence.

Description

Take-off begins when the crew increases the thrust for the purpose of lift-off; ends when TDP is reached or the crew initiates a “Rejected Take-off” phase.

The candidate will demonstrate a normal (i.e. all engines operating) takeoff performed in accordance with the Rotorcraft Flight Manual. The candidate will demonstrate an instrument take-off in the same manner as the normal take-off with simulated instrument conditions established at or after reaching an altitude of 200 feet above the airport elevation. The instrument take-off is not required where the Operator's Certificate authorizes operations under day VFR only, or the operator assigns the pilot to day VFR flight only. Where practicable, the candidate will demonstrate one crosswind take-off performed in accordance with the RFM/AOM where applicable.

For competency checks conducted in a simulator, the candidate will demonstrate a take-off in a minimum 10-kt crosswind in addition to an instrument take-off at the minimum visibility approved for the operator.

Where an operator has RVR 1200 or RVR 600 take-off limits authority, the candidate will demonstrate one such take-off to the lowest limit as appropriate to his flight crew position.

Note: The individual conducting the competency check may combine any of these take-offs.

The candidate will demonstrate a simulated engine failure after take-off as follows:

  • where performed in a visual synthetic training device, the simulated failure of the critical engine will occur at the take-off safety speed plus 10 knots; or
  • where performed in an helicopter in flight, at a safe altitude as close to the take-off safety speed plus 10 knots as is safe and appropriate to the helicopter type under the prevailing conditions.

For competency checks conducted in a simulator, the candidate will demonstrate a take-off with failure of an engine at a speed greater than V1 and at an altitude of less than 50 feet AGL; or at a speed as close as possible to, but greater than V1.

Performance Criteria - Take-off

Assessment of the candidate’s ability to:

  • demonstrate adequate knowledge of normal and crosswind takeoffs and climbs including (as appropriate to the helicopter) airspeeds, configurations, and emergency/abnormal procedures;
  • note any surface conditions, obstructions, or other hazards that might hinder a safe takeoff;
  • verify and correctly apply correction for the existing wind component to the takeoff performance;
  • complete required checks prior to starting takeoff to verify the expected powerplant performance;
  • aligns the helicopter on the runway centerline;
  • apply the controls correctly to maintain longitudinal alignment on the centerline of the runway prior to initiating and during the takeoff;
  • adjusts the powerplant controls as recommended by the POH/RFM or other approved guidance for the existing conditions;
  • monitor powerplant controls, settings, and instruments during takeoff to ensure all predetermined parameters are maintained;
  • adjust the controls to attain the desired pitch attitude at the predetermined airspeed/V-speed to attain the desired performance for the particular takeoff segment;
  • perform the required pitch changes and, as appropriate, performs or calls for and verifies the accomplishment of, gear retractions, power adjustments, and other required pilot-related activities at the required airspeed/Vspeeds within the tolerances established in the POH or RFM;
  • use the applicable noise abatement and wake turbulence avoidance procedures, as required;
  • accomplish or calls for and verifies the accomplishment of the appropriate checklist items;
  • maintain the appropriate climb segment airspeed/Vspeeds; and
  • maintain the desired heading within ±10° and the desired airspeed/V-speed within +10/-5 knots or the appropriate Vspeed range.

Performance Criteria - Engine Failure after Take-Off (Multi-Engine)

Assessment of the candidate’s ability to:

  • recognize the simulated engine failure promptly;
  • control the helicopter;
  • identify and verify the inoperative engine;
  • maintain directional control within ±10 degrees of assigned heading.
  • establish a positive rate of climb, if the helicopter is capable;
  • accelerate to and maintain one engine inoperative required airspeed/Vspeeds and trim the helicopter, as required;
  • locate the necessary controls and switches to carry out and complete the emergency procedures in accordance with the approved emergency procedures checklist (Engine Failure during Takeoff or Overshoot) by:
    1. completing prescribed engine failure vital action checks from memory if required;
    2. completing the emergency drill, in accordance with the emergency checklist; and
    3. completing engine shutdown checks and other necessary checks in accordance with the appropriate emergency checklist(s).
  • monitor the operating engine and take appropriate action to keep the operating engine parameters within limitations.

3.8 Rejected Take-off (RTO)

Aim

To determine the candidate’s ability to recognize an abnormal situation necessitating a rejected takeoff and to carry out an appropriate procedure in accordance with the RFM/POH and/or SOPs.

Description

Rejected take-off begins when the crew decides to reduce thrust for the purpose of landing the aircraft prior to the end of the Take-off phase and ends when the aircraft is taxied off the runway for a “Taxi-in” phase or when the aircraft has landed and the engines are shutdown if required.

When performed in a simulator, the candidate will demonstrate a rejected take-off before reaching the Decision Point or V1 (Safe Single Engine) speed as appropriate or if conducted in the aircraft, the candidate will verbally explain this manoeuvre during the briefing.

Where an operator has RVR 1200 or RVR 600 take-off limits authority, the candidate may demonstrate one such rejected take-off to the lowest limit as appropriate to his flight crew position.

Performance Criteria

Assessment of the candidate’s ability to:

  • demonstrate adequate knowledge of the technique and procedure for accomplishing a rejected takeoff after powerplant/system(s) failure/warnings, including related safety factors;
  • take into account, prior to beginning the takeoff, operational factors which could affect the manoeuvre, such as Takeoff Warning Inhibit Systems or other helicopter characteristics, runway length, surface conditions, wind, obstructions that could affect takeoff performance and could adversely affect safety;
  • align the helicopter on the runway centerline;
  • perform all required pre-takeoff checks as required by the appropriate checklist items;
  • adjust the powerplant controls as recommended for the existing conditions;
  • apply the controls correctly to maintain longitudinal alignment on the centerline of the runway;
  • abort the takeoff if, in a single-engine helicopter the powerplant failure occurs prior to becoming airborne, or in a multiengine helicopter, the powerplant failure occurs at a point during the takeoff where the abort procedure can be initiated and the helicopter can be safely stopped on the remaining runway/stopway. If a flight simulator is not used, the powerplant failure will be explained by the candidate prior to the flight;
  • reduce the power smoothly and promptly, if appropriate to the helicopter, when powerplant failure is recognized;
  • use wheel brakes as appropriate, maintaining positive control in such a manner as to bring the helicopter to a safe stop; and
  • accomplishes the appropriate powerplant failure or other procedures and/or checklists as set forth in the POH, RFM or SOPs.

3.9 Initial Climb (ICL) / Enroute Climb (ECL)

Aim

To determine the candidate’s ability to comply with initial climb departure procedures and enroute departure procedures as cleared.

Description

Initial climb and enroute climb sequences somewhat blend into a single phase that starts when the TDP has been reached and ends when the helicopter has leveled off for the purpose of cruise flight.

The candidate will complete the initial climb procedures, the departure procedures and establish the aircraft on the enroute course, as cleared, in accordance with the Visual or Instrument Flight Rules, as applicable. In addition, the candidate will demonstrate the proper programming and use of Flight Management Systems as applicable.

Performance Criteria - Initial Climb

Assessment of the candidate’s ability to:

  • transition smoothly and accurately from visual meteorological conditions to actual or simulated instrument meteorological conditions, where applicable;
  • monitor powerplant controls, settings, and instruments during the initial climb to ensure all predetermined parameters are maintained;
  • adjusts the controls to attain the desired pitch attitude at the predetermined airspeed/V-speed to attain the desired performance for the particular takeoff and climb segment;
  • perform the required pitch changes and, as appropriate, performs or calls for and verifies the accomplishment of, gear retraction, power adjustments, and other required pilot-related activities at the required airspeed/Vspeeds within the tolerances established in the POH or RFM and SOPs;
  • use the applicable noise abatement procedures, as required;
  • accomplish or call for and verify the accomplishment of the appropriate checklist items;
  • maintain the desired heading within ±10° and the desired airspeed/V-speed within +10/-5 knots or the appropriate Vspeed range; and
  • comply with ATC clearances and instructions issued by ATC (or the individual conducting the competency check simulating ATC).

Performance Criteria - Enroute Climb

Base the assessment on the candidate’s ability to:

  • establish communications with ATC, using proper phraseology;
  • select and identify use the appropriate communications and navigation systems associated with the proposed departure phase;
  • perform the aircraft checklist items relative to the phase of flight;
  • intercept, in a timely manner, all tracks, radials and bearings appropriate to the procedure, route or clearance;
  • adhere to departure, noise abatement and transition procedures or ATC instructions;
  • comply, in a timely manner, with all instructions and airspace restrictions;
  • maintain proper aircraft control and flight within operating configurations and limitations;
  • maintain assigned headings within ±10 degrees;
  • maintain assigned tracks and bearings within ±10 degrees;
  • maintain altitude within ±100 feet;
  • exhibit adequate knowledge of two-way radio communications failure procedures; and
  • conduct the enroute climb phase to a point where the transition to the cruise environment is complete.

3.10 Cruise (CRZ)

Aim

To determine the candidate’s ability to establish the helicopter in cruising flight at the pre-planned power settings in accordance with the POH/RFM and to determine the candidate’s ability to comply with enroute procedures as cleared.

Description

The cruise phase begins when the crew establishes the aircraft at a defined speed and predetermined constant initial or final cruise altitude and proceeds in the direction of a destination and ends with the beginning of Descent for the purpose of an approach.

The candidate will establish the helicopter in cruising flight in accordance with the performance charts in the POH/RFM, placards displayed in the helicopter or any other means authorized by the manufacturer. In addition, the candidate will maintain the aircraft on the enroute course and comply with enroute procedures, as cleared, in accordance with Visual or Instrument Flight Rules, as applicable. The candidate will demonstrate the proper programming and use of Flight Management Systems as applicable.

Performance Criteria

Assessment of the candidate’s ability to:

  • select and use the appropriate communications frequencies;
  • select and identify the navigation aids associated with the proposed enroute phase;
  • perform the aircraft checklist items relative to the phase of flight;
  • intercept, in a timely manner, all tracks, radials and bearings appropriate to the route or clearance;
  • adhere to the enroute procedures;
  • maintain proper aircraft control and flight within operating limitations;
  • maintain assigned heading, tracks or bearings within ±10 degrees, and altitude within ±100 feet;
  • set the power at the pre-planned power setting, as recommended by the POH/RFM;
  • apply any additional measures recommended by the manufacturer with respect to aircraft configuration or other considerations; and
  • confirm cruise performance and demonstrate good decision-making to deal with the consequences of variances from the expected performance (ETA revision, fuel management).

3.11 Steep Turns

Aim

To determine the candidate’s ability to perform level and coordinated steep turns.

Description

At an operationally safe altitude recommended by the manufacturer, training syllabus, or other training directive, the candidate will execute at least one steep turn in each direction with a bank angle of 45° and a change in heading of at least 180° but not more than 360°. The candidate will specify the selected altitude, airspeed and initial heading before entering the turn.

For competency checks conducted in a simulator, the individual conducting the competency check need not evaluate steep turns when the competency check is for a fly-by wire helicopter and steep turns were satisfactorily demonstrated during training.

Performance Criteria

Assessment of the candidate’s ability to:

  • where applicable, divide attention appropriately between outside visual references and instrument indications;
  • roll into and out of turns, using smooth and coordinated pitch, bank and power control to maintain the specified altitude within ±100 feet and the desired airspeed within ±10 knots;
  • establish the recommended entry airspeed;
  • maintain the bank angle of 45° within ±10° while in smooth stabilized flight;
  • after 180° of turn, roll out of the turn at approximately the same rate used to roll into the turn and reverse the direction of turn and repeat the manoeuvre in the opposite direction;
  • roll out of the turn at the reversal heading and the entry heading within ±10°; and
  • avoid any indication of abnormal flight attitude, or exceeding any structural or operating limitation during any part of the manoeuvre.

3.12 Holding

Aim

To determine the candidate’s ability to establish the aircraft in a holding pattern using an actual or simulated ATC clearance.

Description

The holding sequence starts when a holding clearance is issued and ends when the helicopter has exited the holding pattern.

In actual or simulated instrument conditions, the candidate must demonstrate adequate knowledge of a holding procedure for a standard or non-standard, published or non-published holding pattern. If appropriate, the candidate must demonstrate adequate knowledge of holding endurance, including, but not necessarily limited to, fuel on board, fuel flow while holding, fuel required to alternate, etc.

Based on an actual or simulated clearance, the candidate will select a suitable entry procedure, enter the hold and establish the aircraft in the holding pattern. Also, the candidate will demonstrate the proper programming and use of Flight Management Systems as applicable.

Performance Criteria

Assessment of the candidate’s ability to:

  • change to the recommended holding airspeed appropriate for the helicopter and holding altitude, so as to cross the holding fix at or below maximum holding airspeed;
  • recognize arrival at the clearance limit or holding fix and initiate entry into the holding pattern;
  • follow appropriate entry procedures for a standard, nonstandard, published, or non-published holding pattern;
  • report entering the hold;
  • comply with ATC reporting requirements;
  • use the proper timing criteria required by the holding altitude and ATC or examiner’s instructions;
  • comply with the holding pattern leg length when a DME distance is specified;
  • use the proper wind-drift correction techniques to accurately maintain the desired radial, track, courses, or bearing;
  • arrive over the holding fix as close as possible to the “expect further clearance” time;
  • maintain the appropriate airspeed/V-speed within ±10 knots, altitude within ±100 feet, headings/tracks/course within ±10° or within ½ scale deflection of the course deviation indicator, as applicable and accurately tracks radials, courses, and bearings; and
  • maintain proper aircraft control and flight within operating configurations and limitations while in the hold.

3.13 Descent (DST)

Aim

To determine the candidate’s ability to comply with visual or instrument arrival procedures, as applicable.

Description

Descent begins when the crew departs the cruise altitude for the purpose of an approach at a particular destination and ends when the crew initiates changes in aircraft configuration and/or speeds to facilitate an approach to a particular runway. It also may end by the crew initiating an “En Route Climb” or “Cruise” phase.

The candidate will complete the arrival procedures, as cleared, in accordance with Instrument Flight Rules or Visual Flight Rules, as applicable. In addition, the candidate will demonstrate the proper programming and use of Flight Management Systems as applicable.

Performance Criteria

Assessment of the candidate’s ability to:

  • demonstrate adequate knowledge of En Route Low Charts, FMS Procedures, Instrument Approach Procedure Charts, VFR Charts, as applicable, and related pilot and controller responsibilities;
  • select and identify the navigation aids associated with the proposed arrival phase;
  • select and correctly identify all instrument references, flight director and autopilot controls, and navigation and communications equipment associated with the arrival;
  • perform the helicopter checklist items appropriate to the arrival;
  • select and establish communications with ATC, using proper phraseology;
  • comply, in a timely manner, with all ATC clearances, instructions, and restrictions;
  • demonstrate adequate knowledge of two-way communications failure procedures;
  • intercept, in a timely manner, all tracks, radials and bearings appropriate to the procedure, route, ATC clearance, or as directed by the individual conducting the competency check;
  • correctly adhere to visual or instrument arrival procedures;
  • adhere to airspeed restrictions and adjustments required by regulations, ATC, the POH/RFM, SOPs or the individual conducting the competency check;
  • establish, where appropriate, a rate of descent consistent with the helicopter operating characteristics and safety;
  • maintain the appropriate airspeed/V-speed within ±10 knots, , if applicable; heading ±10°; altitude within ±100 feet; and accurately tracks radials, courses, and bearings;
  • complies with the provisions of arrival procedures, as appropriate; and
  • maintain proper aircraft control and flight within operating limitations.

3.14-15 Approach (APR)

Aim

Determine the ability of the candidate to fly a stabilized precision and non-precision instrument approach in accordance with the published instrument approach procedure.

Description

The approach begins when the crew initiates changes in aircraft configuration and/or speeds enabling the aircraft to manoeuvre for the purpose of approaching a particular runway, and ends when the aircraft is in the landing configuration and the crew is dedicated to land on a specific runway. It may also end by the crew initiating an “Initial Climb” or “Go-around” phase.

The candidate will demonstrate at least two instrument approaches performed in accordance with procedures and limitations in the Canada Air Pilot or in the equivalent foreign publications, or in the operator’s approved approach procedure for the approach facility used. Where practicable the candidate will fly one precision approach (3D) and one a non-precision approach (2D). For multiengine helicopters competency checks, the candidate will complete at least one approach with a simulated failure of one powerplant. The simulated powerplant failure should occur before initiating the final approach segment and must continue to touchdown or throughout the missed approach procedure.

For competency checks conducted in a simulator, one of the approaches will be a precision (3D) and one a non-precision approach. The candidates will demonstrate the proper programming and use of Flight Management Systems as applicable.

Note: On a competency check that will generate an initial Instrument Rating, a precision approach is mandatory.

Note: The candidate may fly at altitudes higher than the applicable minimum altitudes depicted on the approach chart, but descent during the final segment of the approach should result in reaching the MDA at a distance from the MAP approximately equal to the recommended minimum visibility. The minimum altitudes depicted on the approach chart represent hard approach floor heights above terrain or other obstacles determined during the approach design process. Descent below such heights compromises the approach design safety factor.

Note: In accordance with the exemption to CAR 602.128(2)(b), a pilot may descend below the MDA which is likely to occur during a missed approach following a stabilized constant descent angle non precision approach. This exemption is subject to the following conditions:

  • 1. the pilot-in-command will conduct a final approach with a planned stabilized constant descent angle (SCDA) from the final approach fix to a normal landing runway threshold crossing height of 50 feet;
  • 2. the pilot-in-command will initiate a missed approach upon reaching the earliest of either the Decision Altitude (Minimum Descent Altitude), or the missed approach point, or the required visual reference necessary to continue to land has not been established;
  • 3. a SCDA approach will not be conducted on procedures requiring remote altimeter setting correction;
  • 4. the instrument approach procedure flown is to straight-in minima, and the final approach course will not be more than 15 degrees from runway centreline; and
  • 5. the pilot-in-command and the private air operator will maintain compliance with the conditions outlined in the schedule attached to the exemption which pertains to a training program, Standard Operating Procedures and Required Aircraft Equipment.

Non-Precision Instrument Approach (2D)

Performance Criteria

Assessment of the candidate’s ability to:

  • select and comply with the VOR/ LOC/ LOC BC or NDB instrument approach procedure to be performed;
  • establish two-way communications with ATC using the proper communications phraseology and techniques, either personally, or, if appropriate, directs co-pilot/safety pilot to do so, as required for the phase of flight or approach segment;
  • comply in a timely manner, with all clearances, instructions, and procedures issued by ATC and advise accordingly if unable to comply;
  • select, tune, identify, confirm and monitor the operational status of ground and aircraft navigation equipment to be used for the approach procedure;
  • establish the appropriate aircraft configuration and airspeed/V-speed considering turbulence, wind shear, microburst conditions, or other meteorological and operating conditions;
  • complete the aircraft check list items appropriate to the phase of flight or approach segment, including engine out approach and landing checklist, as appropriate;
  • apply altitude corrections to all minimum altitudes depicted on the approach chart used when aerodrome temperatures are 0 degrees Celsius or colder in accordance with the General Section of the Canada Air Pilot;
  • prior to final approach course, maintain declared altitudes (±100 feet) without descending below applicable minimum altitudes, and maintain headings (±10 degrees);
  • apply necessary adjustment to the published Minimum Descent Altitude (MDA) and visibility criteria for the helicopter approach category when required, such as NOTAMS, inoperative helicopter and ground navigation equipment, inoperative visual aids associated with the landing environment;
  • on the intermediate and final segments of the final approach course:
    1. maintain VOR/ LOC/ LOC BC/ tracking within ½ scale deflection of the course deviation indicator or within 5 degrees of the desired track in the case of an NDB approach;
    2. fly the approach in a stabilized manner without descending below the applicable minimum altitudes depicted on the approach chart (+as required/–0 feet);
    3. descend to and accurately maintain the Minimum Descent Altitude (MDA) and track to the Missed Approach Point (MAP) or to the recommended minimum visibility that would permit completion of the visual portion of the approach with a normal rate of descent and minimal manoeuvring;
  • maintain declared approach airspeeds (+10/-5 knots); and
  • initiate the missed approach procedure, if the required visual references for the intended runway are not obtained at the MAP; or
  • continue to a normal landing from a straight-in approach.

GPS Approach (2D)

Performance Criteria

Assessment of the candidate’s ability to:

  • select and comply with the GPS instrument approach procedure to be performed;
  • establish two-way communications with ATC using the proper communications phraseology and techniques, either personally, or, if appropriate, directs co-pilot/safety pilot to do so, as required for the phase of flight or approach segment;
  • comply in a timely manner, with all clearances, instructions, and procedures issued by ATC and advise accordingly if unable to comply
  • retrieve the GPS approach from the database, conduct a Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring (RAIM) check or a multi-sensor RNAV check and verify the approach waypoints used for the approach procedure;
  • establish the appropriate aircraft configuration and airspeed/V-speed considering turbulence, wind shear, microburst conditions, or other meteorological and operating conditions
  • complete the aircraft check list items appropriate to the phase of flight or approach segment, including engine out approach and landing checklist, as appropriate;
  • apply altitude corrections to all minimum altitudes depicted on the approach chart used when aerodrome temperatures are 0 degrees Celsius or colder in accordance with the General Section of the Canada Air Pilot.
  • prior to final approach course, maintain declared altitudes (±100 feet) without descending below applicable minimum altitudes and maintain headings (±10 degrees);
  • apply necessary adjustment to the published Minimum Descent Altitude (MDA) and visibility criteria for the helicopter approach category when required, such as NOTAMS, inoperative helicopter and ground navigation equipment, inoperative visual aids associated with the landing environment.
  • take appropriate action in the event that a RAIM alert is displayed when the aircraft is established on the final approach course;
  • on the intermediate and final segments of the final approach course:
    1. maintain GPS track bar within ½ scale deflection;
    2. fly the approach in a stabilized manner without descending below the applicable minimum altitudes depicted on the approach chart (+as required/–0 feet);
    3. announce the approach active mode within 2 nm prior to reaching the Final Approach Waypoint (FAWP) inbound;
  • descend to and accurately maintain the Minimum Descent Altitude (MDA) and track to the Missed Approach Waypoint (MAWP) or to the recommended minimum visibility that would permit completion of the visual portion of the approach with a normal rate of descent and minimal manoeuvering;
  • maintain the declared approach airspeeds within +10/-5 knots; and
  • initiate the missed approach procedure when the required visual references for the intended runway are not obtained at the MAWP; or
  • continue to a normal landing from a straight-in approach.

Precision Instrument Approach (3D)

Performance Criteria

Assessment of the candidate’s ability to:

  • select and comply with the ILS instrument approach procedure to be performed;
  • establish two-way communications with ATC using the proper communications phraseology and techniques, either personally, or, if appropriate, directs co-pilot/safety pilot to do so, as required for the phase of flight or approach segment;
  • comply in a timely manner, with all clearances, instructions, and procedures issued by ATC and advise accordingly if unable to comply;
  • select, tune, identify and confirm the operational status of ground and aircraft navigation equipment to be used for the approach procedure;
  • establish the appropriate aircraft configuration and airspeed/V-speed considering turbulence, wind shear, microburst conditions, or other meteorological and operating conditions;
  • complete the aircraft check list items appropriate to the phase of flight or approach segment, including engine out approach and landing checklist, as appropriate;
  • apply altitude corrections to all minimum altitudes depicted on the approach chart used when aerodrome temperatures are 0 degrees Celsius or colder in accordance with the General Section of the Canada Air Pilot;
  • prior to final approach course, maintain declared or assigned altitudes within ±100 feet without descending below applicable minimum altitudes and maintain headings within ±10 degrees;
  • apply necessary adjustment to the published Decision Height (DH) and visibility criteria for the helicopter approach category when required, such as NOTAMS, inoperative helicopter and ground navigation equipment, inoperative visual aids associated with the landing environment;
  • on final approach course, allow no more than ½ scale deflection of the localizer and/or glideslope indications;
  • maintain declared approach airspeeds within +10/-5 knots;
  • maintain a stabilized descent to the Decision Height (DH) to permit completion of the visual portion of the approach and landing with minimal manoeuvering; and
  • initiate the missed approach procedure, upon reaching the DH, when the required visual references for the intended runway are not obtained.

3.16 Go-around (GOA)

Aim

To determine the candidate’s ability to carry out a successful missed approach under IFR or go-around under VFR, as applicable.

Description

The go-around begins when the crew aborts the descent to the planned landing runway during the Approach phase and ends after speed and configuration are established at a defined maneuvering altitude or to continue the climb for the purpose of cruise.

Following an instrument approach, the candidate will conduct a missed approach at any time from intercepting final approach to touch down on the runway. Except where ATC amends it, the candidate must follow the published missed approach profile.

Performance Criteria

Assessment of the candidate’s ability to:

  • demonstrate adequate knowledge of missed approach procedures associated with standard instrument approaches;
  • initiate the missed approach procedure promptly by the timely application of power, establish the proper climb attitude, and reduces drag in accordance with the approved procedures;
  • report to beginning the missed approach procedure;
  • comply with the published or alternate missed approach procedure;
  • report with ATC anytime the aircraft is unable to comply with a clearance, restriction, or climb gradient;
  • follow the recommended helicopter check list items appropriate to the go-around procedure;
  • request a clearance, if appropriate, to the alternate airport, another approach, a holding fix, clearance limit, or as directed by the individual conducting the competency check; and
  • maintain recommended airspeeds within +10/-5 knots;
  • maintain heading, track or bearing within ±10 degrees; and
  • climb to and maintain the published missed approach altitude, or as cleared by ATC or the examiner within ±100 feet.

3.17 Confined Area

Aim

To determine the candidate’s ability to carry out an approach to landing into an area of restricted dimension.

Description

The confined area exercise begins when the pilot has an area pointed out by the individual conducting the competency check, or is instructed to find a suitable place to land. It ends when the helicopter has safely exited the confined area and is climbing away.

The individual conducting the competency check must assess the decision making process that the candidate uses in selecting and reconnoitering a suitable area. The individual conducting the competency check should not unfairly influence this process by deliberately instructing the candidate to land in an area that the individual conducting the competency check believes to be unsuitable.

Performance Criteria

Assessment of the candidate’s ability to:

  • demonstrate ability to conduct a systematic reconnaissance;
  • conduct reconnaissance at an appropriate altitude and airspeed
  • establish and take account of the size, shape, slope, surface, or surrounds of the area, and the direction of the wind and sun;
  • select appropriate approach or departure path;
  • maintain airspeed and reasonable rate of descent on approach;
  • touchdown in the suitable part of the area;
  • ensure the tail is clear in hover turns;
  • conduct an appropriate departure profile;
  • remain clear of obstacles.

3.18 Sloping Ground

Aim

To determine the candidate’s ability to land on an unleveled surface in accordance with limitations specified in the RFM.

Description

This exercise begins with the selection of a suitable area and ends when the helicopter is no longer over the sloping ground.

Performance Criteria

Assessment of the candidate’s ability to:

  • select a slope that is within the helicopter’s capability;
  • not drift or yaw while landing and taking off;
  • displace the cyclic to keep the disk level whilst lowering the aircraft to the ground after initial contact;
  • displace the cyclic to keep the disk level on takeoff to minimize roll or pitch oscillations when breaking contact with the ground;
  • keep the tail away from the slope;
  • smoothly handle the aircraft and prevent it from falling abruptly or leaping abruptly into the air;
  • lower the aircraft within an acceptable roll or pitch attitude.

3.19 Landing (LDG)

Aim

To determine the candidate’s ability to carry out a normal or crosswind landing and, where practical, a landing from an instrument approach by visual descent from an approach MDA or DA.

Description

Landing begins when the helicopter is in the landing configuration and the crew is dedicated to touch down on a specific runway; ends when the speed permits the aircraft to be maneuvered by means of taxiing for the purpose of arriving at a parking area. It may also end by the crew initiating a “Go-around” phase.

The candidate will demonstrate:

  • one normal (in a normal landing configuration with all engines operating) landing which, where practical, be conducted without external or internal glideslope information;
  • one landing from an instrument approach and, where prevailing conditions prevent an actual landing, an approach to a point where a landing could have been made. This is not required where the operator's certificate authorizes operations under day VFR only, or the operator assigns the pilot to day VFR flights only;
  • one crosswind landing, where practicable, under existing meteorological, runway and airport traffic conditions;
  • one landing and maneuvering to that landing with a simulated failure of 50 percent of the available engines; and

Note: Any of the landings and approaches to landings specified in this section may be combined. A minimum of two landings is required.

Performance Criteria

Assessment of the candidate’s ability to:

  • demonstrate adequate knowledge of normal and crosswind approaches and landings including recommended approach angles, airspeeds, V-speeds, configurations, performance limitations, and ATC or examiner instructions;
  • consider factors to be applied to the approach and landing such as displaced thresholds, meteorological conditions, NOTAMs, wake turbulence, wind shear, microburst, gust/wind factors, visibility, runway surface, braking conditions, and other related safety factors (as appropriate to the helicopter);
  • establish the approach and landing configuration appropriate for the runway and meteorological conditions, and adjusts the powerplant controls as required;
  • perform the aircraft checklist items relative to the phase of flight;
  • maintains a ground track that ensures the desired traffic pattern will be flown, taking into account any obstructions and ATC or instructions from the individual conducting the competency check;
  • verify existing wind conditions, makes proper correction for drift, and maintains a precise ground track;
  • maintain a stabilized approach and the desired airspeed/V-speed within +10/-5 knots.
  • execute a landing from an approach MDA or DA when the required visual references for the intended runway are obtained;
  • accomplish a smooth, positively controlled transition from final approach to touchdown or to a point in the opinion of the individual conducting the competency check that a safe full stop landing could be made;
  • maintain positive directional control and crosswind correction during the after-landing roll;
  • use wheel brakes, as appropriate, in such a manner to bring the helicopter to a safe stop; and
  • complete the applicable after-landing checklist items in a timely manner and as recommended by the manufacturer.

3.20-21 Ground Arrival / Flight Close (FLC)

Aim

To determine the candidate’s ability to conduct after landing taxi in, arrival/engine shutdown, post-flight and flight close procedures as appropriate.

Description

The candidate will demonstrate the ability to manoeuvre the aircraft under its own power to an arrival area for parking, shut down the engine(s) and ancillary systems and conduct required post flight procedures such as securing the aircraft.

Performance Criteria

Assessment of the candidate’s ability to:

  • demonstrate proficiency by maintaining correct and positive control;
  • consider the safety of nearby persons or property by maintaining proper look-out, spacing between aircraft and obstructions;
  • accomplish the applicable checklist items and performs the recommended procedures;
  • maintain the desired taxi speed;
  • comply with instructions issued by ATC (or the examiner simulating ATC);
  • observe runway hold lines, localizer and glide slope critical areas, and other surface control markings and lighting to prevent a runway incursion;
  • maintain constant vigilance and helicopter control during the taxi operation; and
  • record forms/logs and flight time/discrepancies.

3.22 PNF/PM Duties

Aim

To determine the candidate’s ability to demonstrate proper division of PNF/PM duties in accordance with the operator’s Operations Manual and SOPs.

Description

Each pilot will demonstrate PNF/PM duties sufficient to determine compliance with and knowledge of, aircraft procedures and SOPs. This will include normal and abnormal procedures while operating as PNF/PM.

Flight crew may be required to conduct PNF/PM duties from a seat position that they do not normally occupy (competency check with two Captains or two F/Os). In this situation, the training unit will have provided PNF/PM training to the candidates in the seat they will occupy during the competency check.

When a single flight crewmember must be assessed in a multi-crew environment, the individual conducting the competency check must allow for the assessment of the pilot’s PNF skills by providing exposure to situations requiring good crew coordination between the assisting pilot as PF and the competency check candidate as PNF in accordance with SOPs and instructions found in the operator’s Operations Manual. Examples of such situations include both normal and abnormal operations, such as:

  • (a) a normal take-off, visual circuit (where possible) and landing, an instrument approach with a circling manoeuvre (if applicable) to a landing, a visual go-around manoeuvre or a missed approach procedure (if applicable); and
  • (b) a simulated power loss or an emergency procedure and/or abnormal situation.

Performance Criteria

Assessment of the candidate’s ability to:

  • adhere to PNF duties as outlined in the operator’s Operations Manual and/or SOPs;
  • complete necessary duties assigned by the pilot flying;
  • maintain crew discipline during normal and abnormal procedures;
  • demonstrate familiarity with the procedures contained in the QRH or paper checklist;
  • demonstrate FMS inputs, as applicable;
  • maintain situational awareness as a crew member;
  • effectively share cockpit workload; and
  • maintain crew awareness, or attention to flight mode annunciations.

3.23 Engine Failure

Aim

Determine the candidate’s ability to maintain control of the aircraft and carry out the appropriate engine failure procedures in accordance with the POH/RFM and/or SOPs.

Description

The pilot will demonstrate the ability to maintain control and safely handle malfunctions from a simulated engine failure. The engine failures in this section exclude engine failures on the runway followed by a rejected take-off.

Engine Failure – Multi-Engine Helicopter

Performance Criteria

Assessment of the candidate’s ability to:

  • recognize an engine failure or the need to shut down an engine as simulated by the individual conducting the competency check;
  • complete engine failure vital action checks from memory;
  • maintain positive helicopter control.
  • set powerplant controls, reduce drag as necessary, correctly identify and verify the inoperative powerplant(s) after the failure (or simulated failure);
  • maintain the operating powerplant(s) within acceptable operating limits;
  • establish the best engine inoperative airspeed as appropriate to the aircraft and condition of flight;
  • establish and maintain the recommended flight attitude and configuration for the best performance for all maneuvering necessary for the phase of flight;
  • follow the prescribed helicopter checklist, and verify the procedures for securing the inoperative powerplant(s);
  • determine the cause for the powerplant(s) failure and if a restart is a viable option;
  • maintain desired altitude within ±100 feet, when a constant altitude is specified and is within the capability of the helicopter;
  • maintain the desired airspeed within ±10 knots;
  • maintain the desired heading within ±10° of the specified heading;
  • demonstrate proper powerplant restart procedures (if appropriate) in accordance approved procedure/checklist or the manufacturer’s recommended procedures and pertinent checklist items; and
  • monitor all functions of the operating engine and make necessary adjustments.

Engine Failure – Single-Engine Helicopter

Performance Criteria

Assessment of the candidate’s ability to:

  • demonstrate adequate knowledge of the flight characteristics, approach and forced (emergency) landing procedures, and related procedures to use in the event of a powerplant failure (as appropriate to the helicopter);
  • maintain positive control throughout the manoeuvre;
  • establish and maintain the recommended autorotation airspeed, ±10 knots, and configuration during a simulated powerplant failure;
  • select a suitable airport or landing area, which is within the performance capability of the helicopter;
  • establish a proper flight pattern to the selected airport or landing area, taking into account altitude, wind, terrain, obstructions, and other pertinent operational factors;
  • follow the emergency checklist items appropriate to the helicopter;
  • determine the cause for the simulated powerplant failure (if altitude permits) and if a restart is a viable option;
  • simulate an appropriate radio call, when time permits; and
  • perform an effective passenger emergency safety review.

3.24 Autorotation

Aim

Determine the candidate’s ability to recover from an engine failure at the most critical stage of flight.

Description

The individual conducting the competency check may brief the candidate to use a particular aiming point for autorotation, or a limited area on the airport. The autorotation will terminate in a touchdown or power recovery, depending on the wishes of the operator. The management of the particular aspects of the power recovery is not assessed, as it is neither a normal nor emergency flight manoeuvre, but a training artificiality.

Performance Criteria

Assessment of the candidate’s ability to:

  • control Nr and airspeed;
  • adjust airspeed, heading, and Nr in a timely fashion to make the assigned aiming point or area;
  • make the assigned point or area;
  • maintain coordinated flight;
  • complete essential actions, such as lowering the landing gear;
  • maintain correct airspeed before the flare;
  • initiate the flare at the right point;
  • assume the correct attitude for landing to avoid pitch or roll oscillations after touchdown;
  • have the helicopter land without yaw;
  • cushion properly;
  • maintain control of Nr before touchdown;
  • control speed on touchdown;
  • avoid landing hard;
  • avoid rough handling, not risking rotor contact with tail;

3.25-28 Abnormal/Emergencies

Aim

Determine the candidate’s ability to complete recommended checks and procedures in accordance with the POH, RFM, or other applicable publications in the event of system malfunctions or other emergencies.

Description

System malfunctions will consist of a selection adequate to determine that the pilot has satisfactory knowledge and ability to safely handle malfunctions. The candidate will be required to demonstrate the use of as many simulated abnormal and emergency procedures as is necessary to confirm that the pilot has an adequate knowledge and ability to perform these procedures.

Performance Criteria

Assessment of the candidate’s ability to:

  • demonstrate adequate knowledge of the emergency procedures appropriate to the approved RFM (as may be determined by the individual conducting the competency check) relating to the particular helicopter type;
  • promptly identify the malfunctions;
  • promptly apply correct checks and procedures in accordance with the POH/RFM, or other approved publication;
  • consider and apply any restrictions or limitations to the operation of a system(s) and procedures in order to continue the flight;
  • demonstrate knowledge and discipline in the use of the electronic checklist and alerting system, as applicable; and
  • develop a reasonable course of action for the remainder of the flight.
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