Section 11-15

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Preparation and Cookery of Meats

11.1 Purpose

  1. To provide the knowledge and skills required to assess the quality of beef
  2. To provide the knowledge and skills required to tenderize beef
  3. To provide the knowledge and skills required to prepare beef using dry heat methods
  4. To provide the knowledge and skills required to prepare beef using moist heat methods
  5. To provide the knowledge and skills required to prepare variety of meats using combination of dry and moist heat methods.

11.2 Training Objective 1

  1. Trainees to receive instructions in specific characteristics of each Canadian grade of beef.

11.3 Enabling Objectives

  1. Names of Canadian grades of beef
  2. Explanation for the use of Canada approved stamp
  3. Explanation of the letter and number in the grade stamp
  4. Identify persons responsible for grading
  5. Identify the number of grading stamps on each side of beef
  6. Importance of purchasing government inspected beef
  7. Identify colours used to indicate each grade
  8. Identify allowable fat levels
  9. Explain white and yellow fat indications
  10. Recognizing marbling of fat through flesh
  11. Distinguish texture of flesh (fine or coarse)
  12. Distinguish colour comparison, bright red to deep dark red.

11.4 Evaluation

  1. Trainees to undergo written test on beef grading system
  2. Trainees on a visit to a meat packing plant will observe grading process.

11.5 Training Objective 2

  1. Trainees to receive practical instructions in establishing proper ageing technique and tenderizing meat items manually and by marination.

11.6 Enabling Objectives

  1. Establish proper ageing temperature, humidity and time range
  2. Explain why ageing tenderizes meat
  3. Establish best position of beef for ageing
  4. Recognize chemical change is carcass during ageing
  5. Recognize smell of properly aged meat
  6. Monitor loss of weight during ageing
  7. Explain why properly aged meat in more expensive
  8. Name tools and equipment used to manually tenderize
  9. Identify effects of manual tenderizing
  10. Name cuts of meat which benefit from manual tenderizing
  11. Benefits of manual tenderizing
  12. Name utensils necessary in marination
  13. Identity purpose of ingredients used
  14. State ratio of oil to acid
  15. Determine length of time and temperature to marinate
  16. Name popular juices that aid in tenderizing
  17. State additional benefits of marinating
  18. Name most popular spices used in marination

11.7 Evaluation

  1. Trainees to undergo a written test on meat ageing and tenderizing
  2. Trainees will perform manual and marinating forms of tenderizing under supervision

11.8 Training Objective 3

  1. Training to prepare beef products by roasting, baking, broiling, grilling, sautering and pan frying using dry heat methods.

11.9 Enabling Objectives

  1. Using recipes, cook meat by use of dry heat
  2. Prepare beef by roasting/baking
  3. Methods of determining doneness
  4. Popular use of drippings
  5. Length of time a roast should rest before carving
  6. Prepare beef by broiling
  7. Approved methods for testing doneness
  8. Description of temperature used and desired fat content of meat
  9. Comparison between broiling fresh and frozen items
  10. Use of seasonings
  11. Prepare beef by grilling
  12. Popular grilling temperature
  13. Frying mediums and seasonings used
  14. Methods used to establish degree of doneness
  15. Prepare beef by sautering
  16. Approximate cooking time and temperature
  17. Method for testing degree of doneness
  18. Popular use of drippings
  19. Preparing beef by pan-frying
  20. Variety of meat most suitable for pan-frying
  21. Comparison between pan-frying and sautering
  22. Approximate cooking time and temperature
  23. Methods for testing doneness
  24. Popular use of drippings

11.10 Evaluation

  1. Trainees to undergo written test on dry heat methods
  2. Trainees will prepare meats using dry heat methods

11.11 Training Objective 4

  1. Trainees to prepare appropriate meat products by boiling, steaming, poaching and simmering using moist heat methods.

11.12 Enabling Objectives

  1. Using recipes cook meat by use of moist heat
  2. Indicate variety of meat suitable for boiling and prepare same
  3. Establish liquid to use and temperature of boiling
  4. Methods for testing meat for doneness
  5. Seasonings used when boiling and time of removing meat from liquid
  6. Indicate variety of meats suitable for steaming
  7. Instruction in the use of steam as pre cooking step
  8. Effects of high heat on meat protein
  9. Seasonings used when steaming
  10. Methods for testing meat for doneness
  11. Indicate variety of meats suitable for poaching
  12. Temperature of poaching liquid
  13. Seasoning used when poaching
  14. Methods for testing meat for doneness
  15. Indicate varieties of meats suitable for simmering
  16. Type of seasonings used
  17. Advantages of simmering
  18. Method of testing meat for doneness

11.13 Evaluation

  1. Trainees to undergo written test on moist heat methods
  2. Trainees will prepare meats using moist heat methods

11.14 Training Objective 5

  1. Trainees to prepare appropriate meat items by braising and stewing methods.

11.15 Enabling Objectives

  1. Using recipes, cook meats by use of braising and stewing and stewing procedures
  2. Define combination cooking
  3. Identify meats suitable for braising
  4. Type, amount and temperature of fat used
  5. Approximate time required to sear meat
  6. Timing the cooking process
  7. Type of seasoning used
  8. Method for determining doneness
  9. Identify meat items suitable for stewing
  10. Type, amount, temperature of fat
  11. Selection and amount of liquid to add
  12. Approximate time required to sear meat
  13. Type of seasoning used
  14. Method of determining doneness

11.16 Evaluation

  1. Trainees to undergo written test on combination methods
  2. Trainees will prepare meats using combination methods

Preparation, Cooking and Serving of Fish

12.1 Purpose

  1. To provide the knowledge and skills required to identify and select fresh and frozen fish and seafood including their storage methods.
  2. To provide the knowledge and skills required to clean fish.
  3. To provide the knowledge and skills required to select correct cutting equipment and tools and correct filleting and coating techniques for preparation.
  4. To provide the knowledge and skills required to prepare shellfish.

12.2 Training Objective 1

  1. Trainees to receive theoretical and practical instructions in the identification and selection of fresh and frozen fish to ensure quality.

12.3 Enabling Objectives

  1. Identity different species of fish using colour charts and actual species of fresh and salt water fish on field trips.
  2. List the types and varieties of frozen fish available.
  3. Assess quality of fresh fish through appearance, colour, firmness, live characteristics and smell.
  4. Storage methods and temperature level to preserve quality of fresh and frozen fish.
  5. Proper methods for handling and defrosting frozen fish.

12.4 Evaluation

  1. Trainee to undergo written test on selection of varieties of fish and proper storage methods.
  2. Trainee to undergo practical test on handling and defrosting frozen fish.

12.5 Training Objective 2

  1. Trainees to receive practical instructions in cleaning washing and scaling fish to maintain shape, quality and freshness with minimum amount of blemishes.

12.6 Enabling Objectives

  1. Method of washing fish in cold water to remove impurities but maintaining firmness of flesh and retaining flavour.
  2. Scrape the scales off and remove parasites.

12.7 Evaluation

  1. Training to undergo practical test in cleaning washing and scaling at least 3 varieties of fish.

12.8 Training Objective 3

  1. Trainees to receive practical instructions in selecting tools and utensils for cleaning, scaling and portioning to maintain minimum amount of waste and produce cuts of uniform weight and size for preparation.

12.9 Enabling Objectives

  1. Identify tools and utensils for cleaning and scaling.
  2. Methods of cleaning fish by removing gut, gills, head, tail, fins, skin and roe.
  3. Identify type or style of cuts of fish.
  4. Fillet fish.
  5. Instructions in recipes for ingredients, type of coating and method of cooking.
  6. Instructions in cooking methods i.e. poaching, steaming, frying (shallow and deep), broiling, baking and glazing.
  7. Prepare stuffing.

12.10 Evaluation

  1. Trainee to undergo practical test to fillet, section and portion fresh fish.
  2. Trainee to prepare three of the most common used varieties by dry heat and moist heat methods.
  3. Trainee to prepare at least one variety by other methods.

12.11 Training Objective 4

  1. Trainee to receive practical instructions in cleaning and preparation of shellfish.

12.12 Enabling Objectives

  1. Identify classifications of shellfish.
  2. Signs of deterioration of fresh shellfish.
  3. Describe proper procedure to remove dirt and foreign objects and cutting, cleaning and shucking procedures for all forms of shellfish.
  4. Discard stomach and veins or shell and remove impurities by washing in cold water but maintain firmness of flesh and flavour while avoiding damage.
  5. Sequence cleaning, washing and service time to ensure quality and freshness.

12.13 Evaluation

  1. Trainee to undergo a written test on cleaning and preparation of shellfish.
  2. Trainee to undergo a practical test in the preparation of shellfish.

Fruits

13.1 Purpose

  1. To provide the knowledge and skills required to select, clean and prepare all types of fruits for cooking.
  2. To provide the knowledge and skills required to prepare/cook fruits for a variety of menu requirements.
  3. To provide the knowledge and skills required to prepare fresh and canned fruits for frozen storage.

13.2 Training Objective 1

  1. Trainees to receive hand outs on the nature, selection and preparation of fruits.

13.3 Enabling Objectives

  1. Define fruit.
  2. Difference between fruits and vegetables.
  3. Most commonly served fruits.
  4. Advantages of using local fruits in-season.
  5. Acid content of certain fruits and their juices and the effects these acids have on other food products, tools and equipment.
  6. An overview of nutritional value of fresh fruits in a well balanced diet.
  7. Method of cooking which best serves the intended use of the fruit to be prepared.
  8. Uses of fruits as appetizers, accompaniments, main courses, desserts, garnishes and centrepieces.
  9. Oxidation and its effect on fruit.
  10. Importance of using proper tools, equipment and utensils.

Nutrition

14.1 Purpose

  1. To introduce students to the nutritional needs of the human body and the various food sources of essential nutrients.
  2. To provide the knowledge and skills required to prepare meals according to Canada’s Food Guide.

14.2 Training Objective

  1. Trainees to be provided with Canada’s Food Guide and to receive instructions in its use.

14.3 Enabling objectives

  1. Specific food groups for balanced diets.
  2. Balancing menus for nutritional value.
  3. Awareness of requirements for diabetic, restrictive sodium, restrictive fat and therapeutic diets.
  4. Preserving food values by correct storage methods.

14.4 Evaluation

  1. Trainee to undergo written test in the correct and effective use of Canada’s Food Guide when planning and preparing meals.

Vegetables Fresh and Frozen

15.1 Purpose

  1. Trainees to be provided with the knowledge and skills required to:
    1. store fresh vegetables (root and leaf) to maintain quality, colour and crispness.
    2. properly clean and section all types of vegetables into proper shapes and sizes with minimum waste and loss of nutrients.
    3. cook fresh, frozen, dried and canned vegetables.
    4. select proper herbs, spices, seeds and seasonings for use in a variety of preparations.
    5. prepare fresh and canned mushrooms for a variety of menu requirements.
    6. prepare French fried, boiled, mashed, baked-stuffed and scalloped potatoes.

15.2 Training Objective 1

  1. Trainees to receive hand outs on assessment of quality of vegetables and methods of storing.

15.3 Enabling Objectives

  1. Identify vegetables by groups and names.
  2. Assess crispness, colour, decay, smell, firmness and age.
  3. Determine age of produce and probable storage life.
  4. Temperature and environment to preserve quality by refrigeration, humidity and ventilation.
  5. Preparation for storage by removing wilted leaves, branches, decay, packaging.
  6. Repackaging in storage containers (wire baskets or perforated plastic containers) to ensure good air circulation to prolong freshness.

15.4 Evaluation

  1. Trainees to undergo written test on assessment of quality and storage.
  2. Trainees to write a short report on the visit to a local produce supply company.

15.5 Training Objective 2

  1. Provide hand outs followed by practical instructions in cleaning and cutting of vegetables.

15.6 Enabling Objectives

  1. Proper time to clean vegetables.
  2. Proper methods to use to clean vegetables.
  3. Proper time to prepare and cut vegetables.
  4. Proper equipment and tools to clean and cut vegetables.
  5. Demonstrate peeling, slicing and cutting of vegetables using hand tools and machines with minimum loss of nutrients.
  6. Prepare dried legumes for cooking.
  7. Chemicals used to avoid discoloration of certain prepared vegetables.

15.7 Evaluation

  1. Given a variety of vegetables trainee to properly clean and section vegetables into predetermined sizes and shapes.
  2. Trainee to undergo a written test on cleaning and cutting of vegetables and appropriate uses of trimmings and peelings.

15.8 Training Objective 3

  1. Given the necessary equipment and supplies and specific menu requirements the trainee will prepare vegetables using the cooking method which retains maximum colour, flavour, vitamin, mineral and desired texture.

15.9 Enabling Objectives

  1. Determine best method suited for intended use.
  2. Determine proper cooking time and temperature for each method of preparation, i.e.
    1. grilling
    2. boiling
    3. steam cooking
    4. shallow frying
    5. deep frying
    6. bake
    7. braising
    8. pressure cooking
    9. stewing
    10. glazing
    11. sautéing
  3. Describe the acid effect on vegetables.
  4. List and describe the equipment and tools necessary to cook, drain and hold vegetables.
  5. Describe doneness specifications for vegetables.
  6. Describe proper methods for testing vegetables for doneness and use of cooking time chart and tables.
  7. Compare cooking times of frozen vegetables with those of fresh vegetables.
  8. Explain the importance of holding frozen vegetables at specific freezer temperature.
  9. Describe desirable qualities to be retained when cooking vegetables.
  10. Describe effects of overcooking vegetables.
  11. Describe substances/pigments which give vegetables cooked in hard as compared to soft water.
  12. Describe the difference between vegetables cooked in hard as compared to soft water.

15.10 Evaluation

  1. Trainee to undergo a written test on vegetable preparation.
  2. Given a selection of green, red, strong juice, frozen, dried legumes and canned vegetables, the trainee will prepare each group by selecting the cooking method that will retain the maximum amount of colour flavour, vitamins, minerals and desired texture.

15.11 Training Objective 4

  1. Trainee to receive hand outs and instructions on the selection and use of proper herbs, spices, seeds and seasonings to use in a variety of culinary operations.

15.12 Enabling Objectives

  1. Define and identify various herbs, spices, seeds and seasonings.
  2. Describe the part that each plays in food preparation.
  3. Describe the shelf life of herbs and spices.
  4. Explain how whole herbs, spices and seeds are used.
  5. Explain how grounded or powdered herbs, spices and seeds are used.
  6. Describe the effects of over-seasoning, under-seasoning and timing.
  7. Given a list of specific foods, explain how herbs or spices are used to enhance flavour.
  8. Describe how herbs and spices penetrate in dry and moist heat methods of cookery.

15.13 Evaluation

  1. Trainee to research and write a report on herbs. spices and seeds.
  2. Trainee to undergo a written test on herbs. spices, seeds and seasonings.
  3. Given a list of food dishes or preparations the trainee will correctly identify the herb or spices responsible for the predominant flavouring of the dish or preparation.
  4. Given a list of seeds the trainee will name the particular seed most commonly used in particular foods.

15.14 Training Objective 5

  1. Trainees to name, inspect, clean, cut and cook fresh and canned mushrooms to meet specific menu requirements.

15.15 Enabling Objectives

  1. Identify and select most popular mushrooms served.
  2. Clean fresh mushrooms and cut into various shapes.
  3. Cook fresh and canned mushrooms using variety of methods.
  4. Detect spoilage in fresh and canned mushrooms using established procedures.
  5. Describe the variety of uses of mushrooms in food preparation.
  6. Use of mushrooms for soup preparation.

15.16 Evaluation

  1. Trainee to undergo a written test on the preparation and cooking of fresh and canned mushrooms.
  2. Trainee to clean, cut and cook fresh and canned mushrooms to meet specific menu requirements.

15.17 Training Objective 6

  1. Given the necessary equipment, the trainee will prepare and cook potatoes to meet menu requirements.

15.18 Enabling Objectives

  1. Identify potato varieties most suitable for each method of preparation and cookery.
  2. French fried potatoes:
    1. peel, wash, cut, soak, blanch, finish and store potatoes which are blanched but not cooked.
    2. cook French fried potatoes.
  3. Boiled/mashed potatoes
    1. Peel, cut and wash potatoes
    2. Use correct amount of water for boiling
    3. Determine length of cooking time
    4. Test for doneness
    5. Drain and hold boiled potatoes
    6. Mash, add required ingredients and portion
  4. Baked/Baked-stuffed potatoes
    1. Clean and select correct size and wrap in foil
    2. Determine baking time and temperature
    3. Test for doneness and hold after baking
    4. For baked potatoes cut for service and add accompaniment
    5. For baked-stuffed potatoes cut and remove skin, add necessary ingredients and replace potato mixture in skin
    6. Heat to finish
  5. Scalloped Potatoes
    1. peel wash and slice potatoes
    2. layer and add necessary ingredients
    3. determine approximate cooking time
    4. test for doneness
    5. portion

15.19 Evaluation

  1. Trainee to undergo a written test on potato cookery.
  2. Trainee to prepare and cook each type of potato using accepted technique.

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