12. Fire Safety

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12.1 General

12.1.1 To the maximum extent practical, all materials used in the hull construction, surface finishes, deck coverings and trim should be of low flame spread characteristic.

12.1.2 The deckhead immediately beneath survival craft stowages, and any adjacent bulkheads, should be insulated with a 30-minute rated fire insulation.

12.1.3 Any access which may be used as a means of escape to the weather deck should be constructed to B-15 standard as defined in the Hull Construction Regulations.

12.1.4 No material should be used in the construction, furnishing or decoration of accommodation spaces which emits excessive amounts toxic smoke and toxic gases when exposed to temperatures in excess of 60°C.

12.1.5 Notwithstanding the provisions of 12.1.1, existing ships may retain any wood used in accommodation spaces.

12.1.6 Every ship should be equipped with at least one powered fire pump driven by a propulsion unit or independent source of power and should also be provided with a fire main, hydrants, hoses and nozzles.

12.1.7 There should be sufficient number of fire hydrants, each provided with one length of fire hose and located so that any part of the ship may be reached with an efficient stream of water.

12.1.8 Fire pumps may also be used as bilge pumps.

12.1.9 The fire main, water service pipes and fire hydrants should be constructed so that they will not corrode, will not be rendered ineffective by heat and be protected from freezing.

12.1.10 Every ship should have a portable fire pump located outside the machinery space and having a capacity of at least 1.1 m³/hr equipped with a suction and discharge hose suitable for use in fire fighting.

12.1.11 Any ducting carrying vapours or gases the temperature of which exceeds 60°C. should be adequately insulated in way of any bulkhead or deck penetrations.

12.1.12 Any ducting carrying flammable or toxic vapours or gases should be constructed of incombustible material and should be securely supported and fastened.

12.1.13 To the maximum extent practical, electrical components and components containing flammable fluid should be separated by as great a distance as possible.

12.1.14 All fire detection and extinguishing equipment required by this standard should be of a type approved by a national recognised testing authority and should be in compliance with the Fire Detection and Extinguishing Equipment Regulations.

12.2 Living Spaces

12.2.1 Spaces used for messing and sleeping should be provided with smoke detectors and CO detectors with an audible alarm.

12.2.2 At least one Underwriters Laboratories of Canada (ULC) approved, 4.5 L foam extinguisher should be provided, secured in a prominently identified stowage, in each compartment used for messing.

12.2.3 In each space containing sleeping berths, at least one, 1 kg dry chemical extinguisher should be provided.

12.2.4 At least one, 4.5 L foam or 1 kg dry chemical extinguisher should be provided immediately adjacent to any cooking appliance.

12.2.5 Where messing, sleeping and/or galley spaces are contiguous, the requirements for fire extinguishers contained in para. 12.2.2 - 12.2.4 should be complied with as if the spaces were separate. Equivalent fire appliances should be considered on their own merit. Where mess areas are adjacent to machinery spaces, divisions between the spaces are to be gas tight.

12.3 Fire Hazard Areas

12.3.1 Spaces used for storage of flammable materials such as paint or oil should be provided with a certified safe type smoke detector giving an audible alarm; the detector should be certified for use in the dangerous environment to which it may be exposed.

12.3.2 A minimum of one 9 L foam or equivalent A, B or C type multi-purpose extinguisher should be provided for every 15 m in length, immediately adjacent to the entrance of any space in which flammable materials are stored, secured in a prominent stowage (see following Table for extinguishers equivalencies).

12.3.3 The interior surfaces of the boundaries of spaces in which flammable materials are stored should be constructed to B-15 standard.

12.3.4 The exposed surfaces surrounding installed cooking and/or heating appliances should be of, or protected by, incombustible material.

12.3.5 At least one 4.5 kg dry chemical fire extinguisher or equivalent should be provided for each pantry / galley having cooking facilities.

12.3.6 Provision should be made to positively exhaust cooking vapours to the atmosphere; means should be provided to permit the removal of any accumulation of oil or grease from the exhaust duct. The ventilation trunking should be provided with a means of weathertight closure. The trunking should be incombustible and should be insulated in way of any structural penetrations.

Table 1: Equivalents for Fire Extinguishers

Type Water (L) Foam (L) Carbon Dioxide (kg) Dry Chemical (kg)
A 9 9   2
multi-purpose
B   9 7 4.5
B   46 16 9
B   76 23 14
B   151 45 23
C     2 1
C     7 4.5

12.4 Machinery spaces

12.4.1 Any space containing machinery should be provided with a fire detection device giving an audible alarm which can be heard outside of the machinery spaces as well a visual signal; the detector should be re-settable, and should include a test facility.

12.4.2 Any space containing machinery should be provided with a fixed fire extinguishing system, which may consist of a portable extinguisher, with two charges each capable of total flooding of the space with carbon dioxide or TC approved equivalent fire extinguishing medium. Means should be provided to close openings which would admit air into such spaces.

12.4.3 Fixed fire extinguishant discharge should be from one remote control, which should be provided with a positive guard, clearly labelled, in a control point position.

12.4.4 Fixed fire extinguishant should be stored in securely fastened containers with a positive identification outside the space being protected; containers should be provided with a positive indication of their contents except in the case of CO2 systems where pressure does not permit such indication. All systems should be recertified annually.

12.4.5 Notwithstanding 12.4.3, if the primary means of activating discharge of extinguishant is electrical, a manual means of activation should also be provided.

12.4.6 When the ship is constructed of wood, the exposed surfaces within the engine space should be treated with an approved flame retardant coating of intumescent paint or equivalent.

12.4.6 When the ship is constructed of fibreglass reinforced plastic (FRP) flame retardant additives should be incorporated in the exposed layer of resin within the engine space or the final layer of hull lay-up should be of woven rovings. When either of these has not been done, the application of an intumescent paint may be accepted as providing equivalent protection

12.4.8 Any boundaries of machinery spaces which are adjacent to accommodation spaces or escape routes should be insulated to at least B-15 standard and such spaces in new sail training ships should be gas-tight.

12.4.9 Any electrical equipment installed in a machinery space should be of a type so enclosed and protected as to prevent the escape of sparks.

12.4.10 Penetrations of boundaries of machinery spaces should not impair the fire safety of such boundaries.

12.5 Fuel Systems and Stowages

12.5.1 Fuel oil used in fixed installations, should have a flash-point of no less than 60°C (closed cup test). It is recommended that oil fuel tanks be located outside of machinery spaces and be constructed of steel.

12.5.2 Each fuel line penetrating a machinery space boundary should be provided with a remote control shut-off valve fitted on the tank or, where impractical, with a clearly identified rapid acting shut-off valve immediately outside the machinery space, ensuring ready access to such valves at all times.

12.5.3 Any gasoline required to be carried as fuel for survival craft engines should be kept to the absolute minimum and should be securely stowed on the weather deck, clear from any normal work area, and appropriately placarded.

12.5.4 Gasoline stowages should be of brass, bronze, plastic or other material which will not generate sparks and which is impervious to gasoline.

12.5.5 Any tanks used for the stowage of gasoline should be to a standard approved by C.S.A.

12.5.6 Portable fuel tanks should be secured so that when full, they will be retained at angles of heel up to 60 degrees and under loads associated with 2g acceleration.

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