11.1 It is recommended that the primary steering position be located so that the person conning the vessel has a clear view for the safe navigation of the vessel, and be provided with a wheel or tiller positioned so as to permit full range of movement without obstruction.
11.2 The rudder should be so designed and positioned to maximize steering effectiveness under all conditions including angles of heel up to 60 degrees.
11.3 All steering gears, control cables, ropes or rods and pulleys or sheaves should be so positioned and guarded as to minimise the possibility of jamming by loose objects, at the same time providing access for inspection and lubrication.
11.4 Where means of power assistance for steering is provided, manual over-ride should be possible and an indication of failure of power should be provided at the helmsman's station.
11.5 All attachments and mountings of components of the steering gear should be of adequate strength, taking into consideration the loads associated with any power assistance or mechanical advantage.
11.6 In case of a failure resulting in loss of primary steering gear, an emergency means of steering should be available. Instructions for rigging and operating emergency steering gear should be posted adjacent to the helmsman's station.
11.7 The main steering system should be capable of putting the rudder over from 35 degrees on one side to 35 degrees on the other side with the ship at its deepest seagoing draught and running ahead at maximum service speed.
11.8 If the main steering system is power driven it should be capable of putting the rudder over from 35 degrees on either side to 30 degrees on the other side in not more than 28 seconds with the ship at its deepest seagoing draught and running ahead at maximum service speed.
11.9 The design pressure used in calculating scantlings of piping and other steering gear components subjected to internal hydraulic pressure should be at least 1.25 times the maximum working pressure to be expected under the operational conditions specified in paragraph 11.7 taking into account any pressure which may exists in the low-pressure side of the system. Fatigue analysis may be needed in the design of piping components, taking into account pulsating pressures due to dynamic loads if required by a TC inspector.