availability of charts, chart catalogues; chart symbols and abbreviations; use and care of charts, correction of charts; accuracy and reliability of charts.
Lights, beacons, buoys and fog signals used as aids to navigation.
Use of sailing directions ("pilots"), light lists, tide and current tables and tidal current atlases. Navigational Warnings; Notices to Mariners and their use in correcting charts and publications.
Code of Navigating Practices and Procedures so far as it concerns the keeping of a navigational watch.
Use of various chartwork instruments - parallel rules, station pointers, patent protractors.
Tides; tidal datum; tidal and non-tidal currents.
Position fixing: by simultaneous observations, by observations separated by a run; selecting marks for fixing; indicating position; fixing position of uncharted objects; use of position lines/circles obtained by visual bearings, radar range/bearing, Decca readings, Loran readings, transits, echosounding.
The earth and its magnetic field; magnetic poles; variation, change in variation, local magnetic anomalies; isogonic charts; conversion of true courses to -magnetic and vice versa.
Determination of true courses; determination of courses, distances and speeds made good; dead reckoning position; effect of wind and current; estimated position; counteracting the effect of wind and current; selection of safe courses.
Symbols used to indicate: position lines, transferred position lines; dead reckoning, estimated and observed positions; tidal vector; course steered, course made good.
Accuracy of position fixing; errors in taking and layingoff bearings; the "cocked hat"; the diamond of error in hyperbolic position line fixing; common failures in coastal navigation.
Navigation in restricted visibility; importance of soundings; increased effect of current at reduced speeds; point-to-point navigation; parallel-index technique; homing.
Navigation in ice; publications available: information on ice conditions; recommended routes; use of radar; indications of ice; unreliability of winter buoys in ice.
Record keeping; deck log book; bridge movement book; night order book.
Landfall considerations; importance of radar, echo-sounder and radio direction-finder; influence of meteorological conditions including refraction and haze; compliance with traffic separation schemes.
Pilotage; ranges transits, clearing lines and danger bearings; harbour and pilotage regulations; tidal considerations; allowing for advance and transfer; compliance with routing and/or vessel traffic management systems. Shallow water effects and bank suction. Blind pilotage. Common errors in piloting.
Selection of anchorages; quality of bottom, depth of water, shelter, tidal conditions, swinging room; selection of marks and determination of bearings to indicate selected position. Anchor watches, determination of vessel position - visual bearings, radar ranges horizontal angles, Decca readings.
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