Oil and Chemical Tanker Familiarization Training

Previous Page | Next Page

3.1 General

This course applies to officers and ratings who will be assigned specific duties and responsibilities related to cargo and cargo equipment on oil or chemical tankers, taking into account section A-V/1 of the STCW Code.

3.2 Objectives

  1. Provide the training required under Section 159 of the Marine Personnel Regulations in order to obtain an Oil and Chemical Tanker Familiarization certificate or endorsement.
  2. Enable the participants to assume the duties and responsibilities relating to the loading, discharging or transfer of cargo and the operation of cargo equipment.

3.3 Duration

60 hours

3.4 Prerequisites

MED with respect to STCW Basic Safety

3.5 Specific instructor qualifications

The main course instructor must hold a master certificate not lower than a Master 3000 Gross tonnage, Near Coastal certificate, or an engineer certificate not lower than Second-class Engineer certificate, with a valid Oil and Chemical Tanker Familiarization endorsement. If the course is under the supervision of more than one instructor, the assistant instructors must hold qualifications related to the marine industry or have related skills and be approved in accordance with the Quality Management Manual – Marine Personnel Standards and Pilotage, referred to in Chapter 2.

3.6 Equipment requirements

  1. Personnel safety equipment, including breathing apparatus;
  2. Set of protective equipment, including chemical and gas-tight suits;
  3. Respiratory protection equipment for emergency escape;
  4. Tankscope for detecting and measuring hydrocarbon vapours in inert gas spaces;
  5. Portable oxygen meter and oxygen analyser;
  6. Portable combustible-gas indicator (explosimeter);
  7. Portable gas detector with sample detector tubes for vapours and gasses;
  8. Sample cargo data sheets and MSDS;
  9. Latest versions of International Safety Guide for Oil Tankers and Terminals (ISGOTT)
  10. Audio-visual presentation equipment.

3.7 Outline

Subject Area Hours
  Lecture Practical
1. The Oil Tanker
1.1 Give a brief overview of oil tanker design and development
1.2 Describe types of oil tanker in current service
1.3 Describe types of cargo shipped in oil tankers
4  
2. The Chemical Tanker
2.1 Summarize the development of the chemical tanker trade
2.2 Establish elements of design
2.3 Describe types of chemical tanker in current service
2.4 Describe types of cargo shipped in chemical tankers
4  
3. Rules and Regulations
3.1 Identify international and national rules and regulations
3.2 Describe the Bulk Chemical Codes
4  
4. Basic Science Concepts
4.1 Outline physical and chemical properties of petroleum cargoes
4.2 Outline physical and chemical properties of chemical cargoes
4.3 Explain the principle of the controlled tank atmosphere
4.4 Explain the principles of electrostatics
6  
5. Oil Tanker Cargo Handling Systems
5.1 Describe pipeline, pumping and discharge arrangements
5.2 Identify cargo and ballast measuring devices
5.3 Describe venting arrangements
5.4 Describe cargo-heating systems
5.5 Locate bunker systems and bunker transfer equipment
6  
6. Chemical Tanker Cargo Handling Systems
6.1 Describe pipeline, pumping and discharge arrangements
6.2 Describe cargo-heating systems
6.3 Describe venting arrangements
6.4 Outline instrumentation requirements
6  
7. Oil Tanker Operations
7.1 Plan for port arrival
7.2 Describe ballasting and de-ballasting operations
7.3 Prepare for loading and discharge operations
7.4 Describe the Inert Gas System (IG)
7.5 Describe cargo loading and cargo discharging operations
7.6 Describe crude oil washing
7.7 Explain tank washing procedures
7.8 Describe purging and gas-freeing
7.9 Describe general procedures for combination carriers
8  
8. Chemical Tanker Operations
8.1 Plan for safe carriage and correct handling of cargo
8.2 Describe procedures for loading
8.3 Care for cargo during transit
8.4 Discharge cargo and conduct ballast operations
8.5 Conduct tank cleaning procedures and disposal of residues
8.6 Gas-free cargo tanks and test for cleanliness
8  
9. Health, Safety and Emergency Procedures
9.1 Describe health hazards associated with petroleum cargoes
9.2 Describe health hazards associated with chemical cargoes
9.3 Identify personal protection and safety equipment
9.4 Implement control measures for enclosed space safety
9.5 Review fire-fighting principles and control
9.6 Describe terminal emergency procedures
9.7 Describe shipboard emergency procedures
9.8 Give an overview of general safety precautions
3 5
10. Pollution prevention
10.1 Discuss pollution of the marine environment
10.2 Describe operational requirements of oil and chemical tankers
10.3 Respond to marine spills
10.4 Conduct safe transfer operations
6  
  55 hours 5 hours
Total 60 hours

3.8 Syllabus

Topics and Learning Objectives

1. The Oil Tanker

1.1 Give a brief overview of oil tanker design and development
1.1.1 Introduce the concept of carriage of oil at sea
1.1.2 Discuss the evolution of the oil tanker
1.1.3 Show a typical double hull oil tanker general arrangement
1.1.4 Identify general tank and ship arrangements
1.1.5 Describe safety aspects of design

1.2 Describe types of oil tanker in current service
1.2.1 Distinguish:
1.2.1.1 oil tanker
1.2.1.2 crude oil tanker
1.2.1.3 product carrier
1.2.1.4 combination carrier
1.2.2 Differentiate single hull and double-hull oil tanker
1.2.3 Describe the features of a double-hull oil tanker
1.2.4 Explain the term combination carrier
1.2.5 Identify an OBO and O/O carrier

1.3 Describe types of cargo shipped in oil tankers
1.3.1 Differentiate clean oils/products and crude oil
1.3.2 Identify a range of oil cargoes typically carried onboard
1.3.3 List examples of industrial products derived from crude oil
1.3.4 Identify cargoes carried in oil/bulk/ore vessels

2. The Chemical Tanker

2.1 Summarize the development of the chemical tanker trade
2.1.1 Outline the growth of the chemical trade from the mid-1940’s
2.1.2 Describe the evolution of the transportation of chemicals in ships
2.1.3 Explain the requirement for standardized international regulations

2.2 Establish elements of design
2.2.1 Identify ship types from the Bulk Chemical Codes
2.2.2 Explain the general concept of chemical Ship Types 1, 2 and 3
2.2.3 Use a general arrangement plan and identify:
2.2.3.1 General tank and ship arrangements
2.2.3.2 The inboard location of cargo tanks for each ship type
2.2.3.3 Means of cargo segregation and containment
2.2.3.4 Other safety aspects of design

2.3 Describe types of chemical tanker in current service
2.3.1 Identify:
2.3.1.1 Parcel/chemical tanker
2.3.1.2 Product/chemical tanker
2.3.1.3 Specialized chemical tanker
2.3.2 Explain the term parcel tanker
2.3.3 Explain the difference between product tankers carrying refined product and chemical tankers carrying chemicals

2.4 Describe types of cargo shipped in chemical tankers
2.4.1 Differentiate hazardous goods in package form and liquid bulk chemicals
2.4.2 Define ‘noxious liquid substance’ (NLS)
2.4.3 Identify a range of chemical cargoes typically carried onboard
2.4.4 List examples of industrial products derived from chemicals
2.4.5 Identify additional cargoes carried on chemical tankers unrelated to chemicals

3. Rules and Regulations

3.1 Identify international and national rules and regulations
3.1.1 Differentiate international and national legislation
3.1.2 List the most important rules affecting oil and chemical tankers as:
3.1.2.1 International conventions
3.1.2.2 National regulations
3.1.2.3 Classification society rules
3.1.3 Identify the IMO as the international forum for shipping matters
3.1.4 Identify the main IMO conventions affecting tankers
3.1.4.1 Define SOLAS 1974 as the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea, 1974
3.1.4.2 Define MARPOL 73/78 as the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, 1973/1978
3.1.4.3 Define STCW 1995 as the International Convention for Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping, 1995
3.1.4.4 Explain how amendments affect the IMO conventions
3.1.5 Explain how the conventions are incorporated in national legislation
3.1.6 Differentiate MARPOL 73/78 Annex I and Annex II
3.1.7 Define ‘oil tanker’ from MARPOL Annex I
3.1.8 Define ‘chemical tanker’ from MARPOL Annex II
3.1.9 Define ‘NLS tanker’ from MARPOL Annex II
3.1.10 Introduce the ISM Code as the International Safety Management Code
3.1.11 Summarize the basic requirements of a Safety Management System
3.1.12 Identify regulations under the CSA affecting oil and chemical tankers

3.2 Describe the Bulk Chemical Codes
3.2.1 Identify the IBC Code and BCH Code
3.2.2 Summarize the purpose of the Codes
3.2.3 Identify tankers to which the Codes apply
3.2.4 State the dates of compliance for the Codes
3.2.5 Link the Codes to SOLAS 74 and MARPOL 73/78
3.2.6 Provide an overview of the content of the Codes
3.2.7 Differentiate chapter 17 and chapter 18 of the IBC Code

4. Basic Science Concepts

4.1 Outline physical and chemical properties of petroleum cargoes
4.1.1 Discuss general characteristics of crude petroleum
4.1.2 Explain why the composition of crude varies from source
4.1.3 State that crude oil is a mixture of hydrocarbons:
4.1.3.1 Partly gaseous at normal atmospheric conditions
4.1.3.2 Liquid at normal atmospheric conditions
4.1.3.3 Solid at normal atmospheric conditions
4.1.4 Give a brief overview of the refining process
4.1.5 List examples of refined products
4.1.6 Define volatility of petroleum
4.1.7 Link volatility to vapour pressure

4.2 Outline physical and chemical properties of chemical cargoes
4.2.1 Introduce Cargo Data Sheets for chemicals
4.2.2 Explain the physical data of liquid chemicals given in Cargo Data Sheets
4.2.3 Describe the use of the Index of Products Carried in Bulk
4.2.4 Explain the importance of correct technical names and synonyms
4.2.5 Explain the term cargo compatibility
4.2.6 Provide examples of cargoes which:
4.2.6.1 Self-react
4.2.6.2 Polymerize
4.2.6.3 Require an inhibitor
4.2.6.4 React with air
4.2.6.5 React with water
4.2.6.6 React between cargoes
4.2.7 Identify reactions of cargoes with tank coatings and tank materials

4.3 Explain the principle of the controlled tank atmosphere
4.3.1 Identify the components of the fire triangle
4.3.1.1 Explain the related chemical reaction
4.3.2 Explain how variables in a tank, after discharge, can affect the tank atmosphere:
4.3.2.1 Volatility of the cargo in the tank
4.3.2.2 Ambient temperature
4.3.2.3 Amount of residual cargo
4.3.2.4 Distribution of gases
4.3.2.5 Inert gas
4.3.3 Describe the process of gas evolution in a tank
4.3.4 Explain why it is important to measure the tank concentrations
4.3.5 Define:
4.3.5.1 Flashpoint
4.3.5.2 Auto-ignition temperature
4.3.6 Describe flammable range, lower flammable limit (LFL) and upper flammable limit (UFL)
4.3.7 Explain flammable range in relation to different oils and chemicals
4.3.8 Define inert gas (IG)
4.3.9 Identify the regulatory limits of oxygen content in inert gas
4.3.10 Describe how the tank atmosphere is affected during:
4.3.10.1 gas freeing
4.3.10.2 purging
4.3.10.3 dilution with air
4.3.10.4 dilution with inert gas
4.3.11 Differentiate inert and non-inert tank atmosphere
4.3.12 Explain how inert gas is used in chemical cargo tanks for:
4.3.12.1 Protection against polymerization, oxidation and humidity
4.3.12.2 Replace air to prevent fire and explosion
4.3.13 Explain why nitrogen is used instead of inert gas

4.4 Explain the principles of electrostatics
4.4.1 Explain what charge separation is and when it occurs
4.4.2 Describe the process of charge relaxation
4.4.3 Explain charge retention by insulation
4.4.4 Explain when liquids are considered non-conductors
4.4.5 Define a static accumulator oil
4.4.6 List some static accumulator oils
4.4.7 Explain the function and use of anti-static additives
4.4.8 Explain why distillates must be treated as static accumulator oils unless they contain anti-static additives
4.4.9 Summarize the reasons why low load rates are important for some oils
4.4.10 Explain the hazards associated with introducing portable devices and equipment into a tank, and the measures to minimize the hazard
4.4.11 Explain the types of tank operations that can cause a charged mist to develop
4.4.12 Explain the risk of introducing the following into a charged atmosphere:
4.4.12.1 Steam
4.4.12.2 Inert gas
4.4.12.3 Carbon dioxide
4.4.13 Identify the risk of free-fall liquids in a cargo tank
4.4.14 Explain the concept of the ship-to-shore bonding wire and insulating flange

5. Oil Tanker Cargo Handling Systems

5.1 Describe pipeline, pumping and discharge arrangements
5.1.1 Describe general pipeline systems including:
5.1.1.1 Hoses and hard-arms
5.1.1.2 Cargo manifold
5.1.1.3 The ship-shore hard-arm operating envelope
5.1.1.4 The difference between a pipeline and free-flow system
5.1.1.5 The types of pipeline system found on a product tanker and a crude oil tanker
5.1.1.6 The types of valve typically found on a pipeline arrangement
5.1.1.7 A typical VLCC ballast pipeline arrangement
5.1.1.8 A stripping system and its uses
5.1.1.9 The MARPOL line
5.1.2 Describe a general pump-room pipeline configuration
5.1.3 List the main types of cargo pump
5.1.3.1 The centrifugal pump
5.1.3.2 The deepwell pump
5.1.3.3 The reciprocating pump
5.1.3.4 The simplex and duplex pump
5.1.4 Give an overview of basic pumping concepts
5.1.5 Explain the pressure surge, including risks and dangers
5.1.5.1 Downstream
5.1.5.2 Upstream
5.1.5.3 At the pump
5.1.6 Describe the centrifugal pump characteristics
5.1.7 Explain the function of the deepwell pump including its stripping capability
5.1.8 Describe the reciprocating stripping pump
5.1.9 Describe the following valves and their uses:
5.1.9.1 Gate or sluice valve
5.1.9.2 Butterfly valve
5.1.9.3 Non-return valve
5.1.9.4 Angle stop valve
5.1.10 Describe, with the use of a diagram, an eductor
5.1.11 Explain how an eductor is used in the cargo and stripping system
5.1.12 Identify the vacuum-strip system and explain its use
5.1.13 Locate emergency cargo pump stops
5.1.14 Explain the use of the emergency remote cargo pump shutdown

5.2 Identify cargo and ballast measuring devices
5.2.1 Explain the use of the ullage measuring tape
5.2.2 Differentiate innage and ullage
5.2.3 Explain the importance of reliable and accurate measuring devices
5.2.4 Identify closed system electronic ullage gauges (i.e. MMC or Hermetic type)
5.2.5 Describe, generally, liquid level gauges found on oil tankers
5.2.6 Describe, using diagrams, the basic operating principle of a tank radar liquid level gauge
5.2.7 Describe control measures to avoid tank overflow:
5.2.7.1 By use of high-level alarms or overflow-control systems
5.2.7.2 By use of gauging devices and tank-filling control procedures
5.2.8 Explain the danger of exceeding the design head of the cargo tank

5.3 Describe venting arrangements
5.3.1 List reasons for venting from cargo and ballast spaces
5.3.2 Discuss the evolution of gases from cargo tanks
5.3.3 Explain the importance of gas dispersion
5.3.4 Describe still air conditions and safety risks
5.3.5 Illustrate typical gas dispersion patterns
5.3.6 Discuss factors affecting gas dispersion
5.3.7 Describe independent and combined tank venting arrangements
5.3.8 Describe tank isolation arrangements for combined systems
5.3.9 Describe the pressure-vacuum valve (P/V)
5.3.10 Show, with the aid of a diagram, typical P/V locations
5.3.11 Explain the reasons for flame screens in venting systems
5.3.12 Describe the use of a high velocity valve

5.4 Describe cargo-heating systems
5.4.1 List oils which may require heating
5.4.2 List examples of oils which should never be heated
5.4.3 Describe cold weather conditions affecting oil heating requirements
5.4.4 Describe a typical steam heating coil arrangement
5.4.5 Explain how to detect steam heating coil contamination
5.4.6 Compare steam heating to thermal oil heating
5.4.7 State the disadvantages of steam heating coils
5.4.8 Explain the importance of proper cargo temperature control

5.5 Locate bunker systems and bunker transfer equipment
5.5.1 Show, with the aid of a diagram, a typical bunker pipeline arrangement
5.5.2 Show, with the aid of a plan, a typical bunker tank arrangement
5.5.3 Identify bunker transfer pump emergency stops
5.5.4 Identify hazards of light hydrocarbons in the tank headspace

6. Chemical Tanker Cargo Handling Systems

6.1 Describe pipeline, pumping and discharge arrangements
6.1.1 Describe general cargo piping arrangements on chemical tankers
6.1.2 Describe cargo segregation in terms of:
6.1.2.1 Segregation by two valves
6.1.2.2 Spool-pieces
6.1.3 Discuss the care, handling and use of cargo hoses:
6.1.3.1 Compatibility and suitability with chemical cargoes
6.1.3.2 Cargo temperature limitations
6.1.3.3 Inspection and testing procedures
6.1.3.4 Certification of hoses
6.1.3.5 Maintenance and correct handling
6.1.4 Explain basic pumping concepts using deepwell pumps and submerged pumps
6.1.5 Discuss the benefits of the deepwell and submerged pump
6.1.6 Discuss the limitations of deepwell and submerged pumps
6.1.7 Explain different conditions affecting discharge rate
6.1.8 Describe stripping using an eductor
6.1.9 Describe stripping arrangements using a deepwell pump

6.2 Describe cargo-heating systems
6.2.1 Explain the importance of heating for some cargoes
6.2.2 Describe different heating medium
6.2.3 Describe heating systems using:
6.2.3.1 Heating coils
6.2.3.2 Deck mounted heat exchanger
6.2.4 Explain the risks associated with overheating cargo
6.2.5 Explain the risks and dangers associated with poor maintenance of heating systems

6.3 Describe venting arrangements
6.3.1 Use the Code to define open and controlled ventilation systems
6.3.2 Discuss load rates and ventilation capacity
6.3.3 Explain the design of safe ventilation to minimize cargo vapours in areas open to access by personnel
6.3.4 Explain the limitations and risks of open-venting
6.3.5 Explain when controlled venting is required
6.3.6 Describe the reason for and use of the vapour return
6.3.7 Describe safety aspects of vent design, including:
6.3.7.1 Flame arrestors
6.3.7.2 Flame screens
6.3.7.3 High-velocity vents
6.3.8 Explain the purpose and operation of a pressure/vacuum valve (P/V’s)
6.3.9 Discuss general precautions and maintenance of P/V’s

6.4 Outline instrumentation requirements
6.4.1 Explain the terms intrinsically safe, flameproof and increased safety equipment
6.4.2 Describe the principles of operation and types of gauging devices for cargo tanks
6.4.3 Explain the terms:
6.4.3.1 Open gauging
6.4.3.2 Restricted gauging
6.4.3.3 Closed gauging
6.4.4 Explain the use of high-alarm systems for cargoes
6.4.5 Explain the tank overflow control system
6.4.6 Describe, briefly, the test instruments necessary for toxic and flammable cargoes

7. Oil Tanker Operations

7.1 Plan for port arrival
7.1.1 Complete pre-arrival checklists
7.1.2 Inspect and test relevant cargo operations systems
7.1.3 Prepare fire equipment for cargo operations
7.1.4 Identify personnel for cargo operations

7.2 Describe ballasting and de-ballasting operations
7.2.1 Describe typical ballast and de-ballast sequence
7.2.1.1 For single hull tanker
7.2.1.2 For double-hull tanker
7.2.1.3 Heavy weather ballast tank
7.2.1.4 CBT
7.2.1.5 SBT
7.2.1.6 Change of ballast at sea
7.2.2 Outline the requirements for international ballast water exchange
7.2.3 Describe ballast stripping arrangements
7.2.4 Outline procedures and restrictions for contaminated ballast
7.2.5 Discuss use of the slop tank
7.2.6 Explain limitations for ballast discharge at sea and in port

7.3 Prepare for loading and discharge operations
7.3.1 Identify the ship/shore safety checklist
7.3.2 Discuss, using the ship/shore checklist, general safety aspects
7.3.3 Line-up cargo system
7.3.4 Describe the precautions, use and connection of cargo hoses
7.3.4.1 Using terminal hoses
7.3.4.2 Using ship hoses
7.3.5 Describe the precautions, use and connection of hard-arms
7.3.6 Discuss emergency shut-down procedures

7.4 Describe the Inert Gas System (IG)
7.4.1 Specify the reasons for inerting
7.4.2 Define inert gas
7.4.3 Describe the effect of inert gas on flammability
7.4.4 Identify sources of inert gas
7.4.4.1 Flue gas system
7.4.4.2 Inert gas generator
7.4.4.3 Other methods
7.4.5 List the basic requirements of an IG system
7.4.5.1 To inert empty tanks
7.4.5.2 To provide a controlled atmosphere during cargo operations
7.4.5.3 To purge tanks prior to gas-freeing
7.4.5.4 To top-up pressure when required
7.4.6 Use a block diagram to identify the main components of an IG system
7.4.7 Show the relationship and interaction between the components
7.4.8 Identify the requirements for portable and fixed gas measuring instruments
7.4.9 Describe the use of the inert gas system
7.4.9.1 Inerting from a gas-free condition
7.4.9.2 Venting during loading operations
7.4.9.3 Maintaining an inert condition on load passage
7.4.9.4 Pressurizing before cargo discharge operations
7.4.9.5 Inerting during cargo discharge
7.4.9.6 Inerting during COW
7.4.9.7 Inerting empty tanks on ballast passage
7.4.9.8 Inerting during tank cleaning
7.4.9.9 Purging prior to gas-freeing
7.4.9.10 Gas-freeing using the fresh air intake
7.4.10 Describe precautions to take with the IG system during tank entry

7.5 Describe cargo loading and cargo discharging operations
7.5.1 Discuss loading methods and safe practices
7.5.1.1 Gravity from shore to ship
7.5.1.2 Initial and full pumping rates to ship
7.5.1.3 Frame samples
7.5.1.4 Importance of grade segregation
7.5.1.5 Monitoring tanks during loading
7.5.1.6 Topping off
7.5.1.7 Relaxation periods prior to ullaging and sampling
7.5.2 Discuss discharge methods and safe practices
7.5.2.1 Sequence of valve opening ship to shore
7.5.2.2 Starting and monitoring of cargo pumps
7.5.2.3 Shore check valves
7.5.2.4 Initial and full pumping rates to shore
7.5.2.5 Monitoring tanks during discharge
7.5.2.6 Precautions and risks blowing lines
7.5.3 Identify checks to be made by the deck watch during loading and discharge

7.6 Describe crude oil washing
7.6.1 Define crude oil washing (COW)
7.6.2 State COW is mandatory for many crude oil tankers
7.6.3 Differentiate water washing and crude oil washing
7.6.4 List advantages and disadvantages of COW
7.6.5 Define commonly used terms and their relationships
7.6.6 Explain the basic principles of crude oil washing
7.6.7 Discuss the characteristics of crude oil as a washing fluid
7.6.8 Describe top washing, bottom washing
7.6.9 Describe multi-stage and single stage washing using fixed deck-mounted and fixed submerged machines
7.6.10 Identify, from a diagram, the location of COW pipelines and machines
7.6.11 Describe portable and fixed drive units and their limitations
7.6.12 Identify checks to be made by the deck watch during COW operations

7.7 Explain tank-washing procedures
7.7.1 List the reasons for tank washing
7.7.2 Describe tank washing line, pump and stripping arrangements
7.7.3 Identify the risks involved with tank washing
7.7.4 List the precautions to be taken during tank washing
7.7.5 State tank washing should be undertaken in an inert atmosphere
7.7.6 Identify precautions to take when washing a non-inert tank
7.7.7 Describe tank washing processes
7.7.7.1 With cold water
7.7.7.2 With hot water
7.7.7.3 Using chemicals
7.7.7.4 Using portable machines
7.7.7.5 Using fixed in place machines
7.7.7.6 Use of programmable and non-programmable machines
7.7.8 State that disposal of tank residues must comply with regulations
7.7.9 Explain the use of the slop tank/s
7.7.10 Identify the risks of over filling slop tanks
7.7.11 Identify safety checks to be made by the deck watch during tank washing

7.8 Describe purging and gas-freeing
7.8.1 Define gas-freeing
7.8.2 Define purging
7.8.3 List the reasons for gas freeing
7.8.4 Describe the safety precautions to take during gas-freeing
7.8.5 Give details of gas-freeing fans arrangements
7.8.5.1 Portable fans
7.8.5.2 Fixed gas freeing equipment
7.8.5.3 Use of the IG air intake
7.8.6 Describe methods of gas-freeing
7.8.7 Define a gas-free tank
7.8.8 Identify how a tank can again become gas dangerous
7.8.9 Discuss the securing arrangements of tank IG lines
7.8.10 Identify safety checks to be made by the deck watch during gas freeing

7.9 Describe general procedures for combination carriers
7.9.1 Prepare holds from dry bulk cargo to oil cargo
7.9.2 Identify additional precautions necessary before loading oil cargo
7.9.3 Identify risks specific to combination carriers when carrying oil cargoes
7.9.4 Identify risks specific to combination carriers during load and discharge of oil cargoes
7.9.5 Prepare holds from oil cargo for dry bulk cargo

8. Chemical Tanker Operations

8.1 Plan for safe carriage and correct handling of cargo
8.1.1 Identify the role and responsibilities of the cargo planner
8.1.2 Identify correct technical name and methods to verify this
8.1.3 Discuss the importance of tank cleanliness for the loading of cargoes
8.1.4 Explain the requirements of heating, padding and blanketing
8.1.5 Explain the reasons for not stowing toxic cargoes next to edible cargoes
8.1.6 Identify additional stowage requirements for toxic products
8.1.7 Identify requirements for inhibited cargoes
8.1.8 Explain why tank coatings, fixtures and fittings must be compatible with cargoes to be carried
8.1.9 Explain why stainless steel is used in some cargo tanks, cargo piping, valves and pumps

8.2 Describe procedures for loading
8.2.1 Describe general tanker precautions to be taken prior to loading
8.2.2 Explain lining up for loading
8.2.3 Describe different methods of loading and precautions for various cargoes:
8.2.3.1 Over the top
8.2.3.2 Through the drop line
8.2.3.3 Through the deepwell pump and/or drop line
8.2.3.4 Through the pump-room
8.2.4 Explain:
8.2.4.1 Inerting
8.2.4.2 Padding
8.2.4.3 Drying
8.2.5 Explain the requirements for line and cargo sampling
8.2.6 Describe the load sequence
8.2.7 Identify checks to be made by the deck watch during loading
8.2.8 Describe procedures to take on completion of loading
8.2.9 Define:
8.2.9.1 Ullage
8.2.9.2 Innage
8.2.9.3 Sounding

8.3 Care for cargo during transit
8.3.1 Explain precautions to take to avoid cargo loss during transit
8.3.2 Explain how to maintain cargo temperature according to shipper’s instructions
8.3.3 Explain cargo care and safety during transit
8.3.4 Provide details of the care and transportation requirements for vegetable and animal oils and fats

8.4 Discharge cargo and conduct ballast operations
8.4.1 Identify the operational tests required prior to arrival at the discharge port
8.4.2 Explain the requirements for line and cargo sampling
8.4.3 Describe general tanker safety precautions to be taken prior to discharging
8.4.4 Explain techniques and precautions for discharge of high vapour pressure cargoes
8.4.5 Discuss general safety precautions during discharge
8.4.6 Identify checks to be made by the deck watch during discharge
8.4.7 Identify an independent ballast pipeline and pumping arrangement
8.4.8 Identify precautions to take before and during ballasting of cargo tanks
8.4.9 Describe a ballast/de-ballast sequence

8.5 Conduct tank cleaning procedures and disposal of residues
8.5.1 List the reasons for tank cleaning
8.5.2 Comply with the requirements of the P&A Manual
8.5.3 Describe the water washing process and components of the cleaning system
8.5.4 Explain the use of cleaning agents or additives during tank cleaning
8.5.5 Explain the use of other liquids for water reactive residues
8.5.6 Consult resistance lists for tank coatings
8.5.7 Introduce a Tank Cleaning Guide and provide an example for cleaning a cargo tank
8.5.8 Identify and describe phases of tank cleaning
8.5.8.1 Prewash
8.5.8.2 Main wash
8.5.8.3 Fresh water rinse
8.5.8.4 Gas-freeing and/or ventilation
8.5.8.5 Drying
8.5.8.6 Inspection/testing
8.5.9 Identify checks to be made by the deck watch during tank cleaning

8.6 Gas-free cargo tanks and test for cleanliness
8.6.1 Explain the purpose of gas-freeing
8.6.2 Describe the equipment used for gas-freeing
8.6.3 Explain different ventilation methods with regard to:
8.6.3.1 Type of equipment
8.6.3.2 Weight of cargo vapours
8.6.3.3 Shape of the tank
8.6.4 Describe safety precautions to take during gas freeing
8.6.5 Identify checks to be made by the deck watch during gas freeing
8.6.6 Describe the equipment used for checking for a gas-free tank
8.6.7 Explain when a tank is considered to be gas-free
8.6.8 Explain the importance of a gas free certificate and entry permits
8.6.9 Explain the importance of tank cleanliness
8.6.10 Describe the standards expected for tank cleanliness

9. Health, Safety and Emergency Procedures

9.1 Describe health hazards associated with petroleum cargoes
9.1.1 List the typical toxic constituents of petroleum gas
9.1.2 List the main toxic constituents of inert gas
9.1.3 Describe, in general terms, the main exposure hazards to ship personnel
9.1.3.1 Toxicity and the criteria by which it is measured
9.1.3.2 Poisoning – ingestion, inhalation, and absorption
9.1.3.3 Petroleum gas and complications on the person
9.1.3.4 Oxygen deficiency and its effects
9.1.3.5 The effects of various components of flue gases
9.1.4 Discuss risks and dangers of hydrogen sulphide

9.1.4.1 Introduce hydrogen sulphide as a dangerous gas
9.1.4.2 List cargoes where hydrogen sulphide may be present
9.1.4.3 Outline its physical properties
9.1.4.4 Describe the physical effects for the human body
9.1.4.5 Describe precautions to take handling hydrogen sulphide rich cargoes
9.1.5 Describe the Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)
9.1.5.1 Explain the use of the MSDS
9.1.5.2 Explain each section of the MSDS
9.1.5.3 State the periodicity of the MSDS
9.1.6 Discuss general first aid procedures

9.2 Describe health hazards associated with chemical cargoes
9.2.1 Define ‘health hazard’ as provided in the Code
9.2.2 Identify the IMO Medical First Aid Guide for Accidents Involving Dangerous Goods (MFAG)
9.2.3 Identify health hazards posed by chemical cargoes;
9.2.3.1 Toxicity
9.2.3.2 Asphyxia
9.2.3.3 Corrosivity
9.2.4 Explain how chemicals may enter and affect the human body
9.2.5 Describe the general symptoms of poisoning
9.2.6 Explain the general symptoms of asphyxia
9.2.7 Identify ‘health data’ from Cargo Data Sheets
9.2.8 Show and explain a Material Safety Data Sheet for sample products
9.2.9 Differentiate MSDS and Cargo Hazard Sheets
9.2.10 Identify ‘health data’ from MSDS
9.2.11 Extract first-aid procedures from Cargo Data Sheets
9.2.12 Identify medical first-aid equipment provided onboard including oxygen resuscitation equipment and antidotes for products carried

9.3 Identify personal protection and safety equipment
9.3.1 Identify personnel protection requirements from the Code
9.3.2 List typical protective equipment required onboard
9.3.3 Identify how used and contaminated equipment is segregated from accommodation spaces
9.3.4 List additional safety equipment required for ships carrying toxic products and certain cargoes
9.3.5 Differentiate total protection and partial protection
9.3.6 Demonstrate the use of personal safety and protective equipment

9.4 Implement control measures for enclosed space safety
9.4.1 Define the enclosed space
9.4.2 Identify enclosed spaces
9.4.3 Identify potential hazards
9.4.4 Discuss role and duties of a ‘responsible person’
9.4.5 Explain the role of the marine chemist
9.4.6 List commonly used gas indicators and analyzers
9.4.7 Provide details of and the reasons for work permits
9.4.8 Review the requirements of the SMS
9.4.8.1 Permit to Work Systems
9.4.8.2 Work Planning Meetings
9.4.9 Analyze check lists and pre-entry checklists
9.4.10 Assess hazards prior to entry
9.4.11 Recommend procedures and practices for pumproom safety
9.4.11.1 List sources of leakage in the pumproom
9.4.11.2 Describe fire fighting arrangements in the pumproom
9.4.11.3 Review pumproom ventilation requirements
9.4.11.4 List safety equipment located in the pumproom
9.4.11.5 Identify pumproom entry checklists
9.4.12 Recommend procedures and safety practices for tank entry
9.4.12.1 List precautions to take for tank entry
9.4.12.2 Identify tank atmosphere test procedures
9.4.12.3 List equipment required
9.4.12.4 Identify key personnel
9.4.12.5 Analyze tank entry checklists
9.4.13 Explain methods to reduce or eliminate hazards
9.4.14 Re-assess hazards
9.4.15 Simulate emergency tank entry and evacuation procedures using:
9.4.15.1 Tank evacuation equipment
9.4.15.2 Resuscitation equipment
9.4.15.3 Self-contained breathing apparatus
9.4.16 Explain the terms intrinsically safe, flameproof and increased safety equipment

9.5 Review fire-fighting principles and control
9.5.1 Identify the components of the fire triangle
9.5.2 Explain the related chemical reaction
9.5.3 Explain the principles of fire prevention
9.5.4 List sources of emission of flammable cargo vapours
9.5.5 Identify possible ignition sources on oil and chemical tankers
9.5.6 List fire fighting equipment available on board
9.5.7 Describe methods of controlling fire with:
9.5.7.1 Water
9.5.7.2 Foam
9.5.7.3 Inert gas
9.5.7.4 Dry chemical
9.5.7.5 Carbon dioxide
9.5.8 Review regulations for the protection of cargo tanks, cargo tank deck area and pumprooms
9.5.9 Identify in Chapter 17 of the IBC Code types of fire protection for chemical tankers
9.5.10 Identify additional fire control problems with certain chemicals
9.5.11 List fire fighting equipment available on board oil and chemical tankers

9.6 Describe terminal emergency procedures
9.6.1 Identify fire fighting equipment available on the jetty
9.6.2 Identify water-borne fire-fighting equipment available
9.6.3 Describe shore and terminal alarms used in cases of emergency
9.6.4 Identify emergency communications between ship and shore
9.6.5 Specify when emergency cargo operations shut-down is necessary
9.6.6 Identify escape routes from ship to shore and from jetty areas
9.6.7 Describe the general content of a terminal emergency plan
9.6.8 Explain the purpose of the ship-shore safety check list
9.6.9 Describe the general content of the ship-shore safety check list

9.7 Describe shipboard emergency procedures
9.7.1 Differentiate operational and non-operational emergencies
9.7.2 List the type of emergencies that require written procedures
9.7.3 Discuss the use of emergency plans
9.7.4 Explain the function of an emergency organization
9.7.5 List the main components of an emergency organization
9.7.6 Describe different ship alarms used in cases of emergency
9.7.7 Discuss training for emergencies
9.7.8 Simulate the action required for different emergencies
9.7.9 Discuss, with the use of casualty reports, emergency scenarios and responses

9.8 Give an overview of general safety precautions
9.8.1 Describe the use, purpose and general content of ISGOTT
9.8.2 Describe the use, purpose and general content of the Tanker Safety Guide Chemicals
9.8.3 Identify other tanker related safety publications for additional information and guidance
9.8.4 Use ISGOTT as a means to discuss general precautions on oil tankers
9.8.5 Use the Tanker Safety Guide Chemicals as a means to discuss general precautions on chemical tankers

10. Pollution prevention

10.1 Discuss pollution of the marine environment
10.1.1 Use statistics to show major worldwide pollution incidents from oil and chemical tankers
10.1.2 Provide examples of how pollution can occur
10.1.2.1 In port
10.1.2.2 At sea
10.1.3 Provide examples of damage to the marine environment due to oil and chemical pollution
10.1.4 State the penalties for pollution of Canadian waters

10.2 Describe operational requirements of oil and chemical tankers
10.2.1 Identify requirements of oil tankers:
10.2.1.1 Segregated ballast capacity
10.2.1.2 Double hulls and double bottoms
10.2.1.3 Pump-room bottom protection
10.2.1.4 Slop tank capacity
10.2.1.5 Limitation of tank size
10.2.1.6 Overboard piping arrangements
10.2.1.7 Emergency towing arrangements
10.2.2 Explain, briefly, the requirements for an oil discharge control and monitoring system (ODMACS)
10.2.3 Explain the use of the portable oil/water interface detector
10.2.4 Describe the LOT procedure for crude oil tankers
10.2.5 Identify requirements of chemical tankers:
10.2.5.1 Inboard location of cargo tanks
10.2.5.2 Segregated ballast tanks
10.2.5.3 Limitations of Type 3 tankers
10.2.5.4 Ballast pump room
10.2.5.5 Efficient stripping locations
10.2.5.6 Underwater discharge outlet
10.2.5.7 Dedicated slop tank(s), if any
10.2.6 Discuss the reason for and requirements of reception facilities

10.3 Respond to marine spills
10.3.1 Describe SOPEP and SMPEP requirements
10.3.2 Show an example of a SOPEP and a SMPEP
10.3.3 Differentiate SOPEP and SEMPEP
10.3.4 List pollution prevention equipment required on board
10.3.5 Identify periodicity of required pollution drills
10.3.6 Describe methods of containment using ship pollution equipment
10.3.7 Describe pollution prevention equipment limitations
10.3.8 Discuss the use of chemical dispersants and detergents
10.3.9 Discuss the importance of timely response to marine spills
10.3.10 Evaluate the effects of delayed response to a marine spill
10.3.11 Identify parties responsible for:
10.3.11.1 Clean up
10.3.11.2 Resources available
10.3.11.3 Assistance available
10.3.11.4 Supply of pollution prevention equipment
10.3.11.5 Disposal
10.3.11.6 Costs for a marine oil spill
10.3.12 List types of pollution equipment available from a shore based pollution response centre

10.4 Conduct safe transfer operations
10.4.1 Identify Regulations for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships and for Dangerous Chemicals
10.4.1.1 Identify sections dealing with oil and chemical transfers
10.4.1.2 Discuss each section relating to oil and chemical transfers
10.4.2 Identify markings on transfer hoses
10.4.3 Differentiate hoses suitable for oil and chemical service
10.4.4 Describe the handling and preparation of cargo hoses for oil and chemical transfer
10.4.5 State the conditions for authorized discharge of oil and oily mixture in Canadian and International waters
10.4.6 State when the discharge of oil and oily mixture is prohibited
10.4.7 State the conditions for authorized discharge of NLS in Canadian and International waters
10.4.8 State when the discharge of NLS is prohibited
10.4.9 Explain the purpose of:
10.4.9.1 Oil Record Book Part I (machinery spaces)
10.4.9.2 Oil Record Book Part II (cargo /ballast operations)
10.4.9.3 Cargo Record Book

Previous Page | Next Page