While air travel supports Canada’s economy, trade and tourism, and connects Canadians separated by great distances and rugged terrain, it also contributes to greenhouse gas emissions. This voluntary Action Plan expresses how the parties, in good faith, intend to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from aviation activities.
It does not contain legal obligations of any kind or impose unreasonable expectations on any party, or intend to negatively impact any air carrier’s ability to do business in Canada.
The Government of Canada reserves the right to develop and implement appropriate regulatory or other measures to achieve clean air and climate change goals. Nothing in this Action Plan will keep the Parties from taking further actions relating to greenhouse gas emissions or fuel use.
Dated at Ottawa this 1st day of June 2012
Honourable Denis Lebel,
Minister of Transport, Infrastructure and Communities
Jim Quick, President and CEO
Aerospace Industries Association of Canada
John McKenna, President and CEO
Air Transport Association of Canada
Daniel-Robert Gooch, President
Canadian Airports Council
Sam Barone, President and CEO
Canadian Business Aviation Association
George Petsikas, President
National Airlines Council of Canada
John W. Crichton, President and CEO
Building on the success of the world’s first voluntary agreement to address greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from aviation, the Government of Canada and the Canadian aviation industry have developed Canada’s Action Plan to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Aviation (the Action Plan).
Taking into account achievements to date, as well as the Canadian context, the Action Plan sets an ambitious goal to reduce GHG emissions from both domestic and international operations, which we expect to contribute to global efforts to minimize aviation’s carbon footprint.
In line with the broad international consensus, the Action Plan sets an aspirational goal to improve fuel efficiency from a 2005 baseline by an average annual rate of at least 2 percent per year until 2020. To help ensure we reach this goal, the Action Plan identifies three key measures that are expected to have the greatest environmental impact:
The Action Plan also highlights a second set of measures. The Canadian aviation industry expects these measures to have beneficial environmental results, but these results are not expressed in quantitative terms due to the nature or current stage of the activity. These include:
The Action Plan is a living document that will evolve through:
Under the Cancun Agreements, Canada has committed to a national greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction target of 17 percent below 2005 levels by 2020. The Government of Canada has been working towards this target by addressing GHG emissions on a sector-by-sector basis.
The aviation industry1 and the Government of Canada have been working together to reduce domestic and international GHG emissions from the aviation sector since 2005. Any future efforts to reduce domestic aviation emissions will contribute to Canada’s broader 17 percent climate change target.
In October 2010, the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) adopted a new Assembly Resolution on climate change, Resolution A37-19. It set several voluntary goals for international aviation emissions, including:
To help ICAO track progress towards reaching these goals, the resolution encourages Member States to submit action plans detailing specific measures to address GHG emissions related to international aviation to ICAO by June 2012.
A joint government-industry Working Group on Aviation Emissions (the Working Group) was established in 2010 to develop a plan to address GHG emissions from the domestic aviation sector, as well as to collaborate on the development of the Government of Canada’s submission to ICAO. This collaboration builds on existing efforts to address GHG emissions, such as:
Canada’s Action Plan to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Aviation (the Action Plan) describes ongoing and planned activities to reduce GHG emissions from Canada’s domestic and international aviation activities. These measures could contribute to both Canada’s national GHG emission reduction target of 17 percent below 2005 by 2020 and ICAO’s global goals.
In order to reduce GHG emissions from Canada’s aviation sector, Canada has set a target of:
The 2005 baseline is consistent with Canada’s commitments under the Cancun Agreements. In 2005, the average fuel efficiency rate for Canadian air carriers was 40.46 litres of fuel per 100 RTK (see Appendix A for more details).
Through its efforts, Canada’s aviation sector supports the following global aspirational goals:
Understanding the role of the aviation sector in Canada helps put the potential impact and feasibility of Canada’s target and global goals in context.
Based on land mass, Canada is the second largest country in the world. Its population of 33 million is scattered across 9 million square kilometres. This means that air transportation is essential to Canada’s domestic and international trade, as well as to connecting Canadians within the country and to the rest of the world. Canada’s air industry also serves remote communities where it is often the only way to move people and basic commodities.
Average distances flown domestically per passenger are considerably higher in Canada than in countries with smaller landmass. For example, in 2009:
Aviation plays a key role in Canada’s economy. In 2009, the aviation sector carried over 71 million passengers and 762,000 tonnes of freight to, from and within Canada. Air transportation contributes $33 billion to Canada’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and supports 401,000 jobs in Canada (2.4 percent of the Canada’s workforce). By including the sector’s contribution to the tourism industry, these figures rise to 2.8 percent of Canadian GDP and 551,000 jobs, or 3.3 percent of the workforce.6
The 26 National Airport System (NAS) airports provide access to air transportation to Canadians with airport passenger volumes of up to 31 million in 2010 (see Figure 1). Airports across Canada strive to be as competitive as possible to meet the needs of local, provincial, and national economies. To do so, airports must be safe and secure, and have processes in place to efficiently move people and goods, address environmental issues, and provide excellent service.
Source: Transport Canada, Economic Analysis.
Note: Mirabel, a NAS airport, is not included because it does not serve passengers.
In 2008, aviation emissions made up 5 percent of domestic emissions from transportation and 1 percent of total Canadian emissions (see Figure 2).7 Despite the high and rising demand for airline services in Canada, the Canadian aviation industry has made real progress towards limiting its carbon footprint.
Source: Environment Canada, Canada’s Emissions Trends, 2011.8
|Sector||Megatonnes (Mt)||Percentage %|
|Waste and other||55 Mt||8%|
|Oil and Gas||158 Mt||22%|
|Emissions-intensive trade-exposed industries||76 Mt||10%|
|Mode||Megatonnes (Mt)||Percentage %|
|On-Road Passenger||77.2 Mt||45%|
|On-Road Freight||63.7 Mt||37%|
1Other includes off-road gasoline (e.g. all-terrain vehicles) and refrigerant leakage from vehicle air conditioners.
In June 2005, ATAC and Transport Canada signed the world’s first voluntary agreement to address GHG emissions from both domestic and international aviation operations. The agreement set a goal of a 1.1 percent average annual improvement in fuel efficiency for each year to 2012, a cumulative improvement of 24 percent, compared to the 1990 baseline.
In 2008, the large Canadian carriers (Air Canada, Jazz Aviation LP, Air Transat, and WestJet) left ATAC and formed the National Airlines Council of Canada (NACC). Since then, both associations have continued to fulfill their commitments under the voluntary agreement, annually reporting fuel consumption and activity measurements.
A number of key initiatives have been put in place to:
Together, these investments have greatly contributed to modernizing Canada’s airline, airport, and air traffic management infrastructure, which was ranked first according to the World Economic Forum in 2011.11
As of 2010, Canada’s aviation industry had made a 1.9 percent average annual fuel efficiency improvement since 1990, or a 31 percent cumulative improvement, which exceeds the agreed-upon goal in the voluntary agreement. While absolute domestic and international emissions have grown at an average annual rate of 1 percent between 1990 and 2010, this rate would have been much higher without these fuel efficiency improvements (see Figure 3). One estimate suggests that the fuel efficiency gains achieved between 2001 and 2010 from fleet renewal, operational, and air traffic management improvements have reduced emissions by 18 million tonnes below what they would have been without such measures.12
Source: 2010 Canadian Aviation Industry Report on Greenhouse Gas Emissions reductions, March 2012.
|Fuel Efficiency in Litres/100 RTK||46.51||43.50||44.01||41.28||40.46||40.47||38.98||39.49||38.65||37.90|
|GHG Emissions at 2001 Efficiency||12.35||12.67||12.39||13.15||14.36||15.24||16.91||16.79||15.62||17.61|
To build on the aviation sector’s fuel efficiency advances thus far, the Canadian aviation industry, together with the Government of Canada, must address a number of challenges and explore new opportunities. This is why Canada’s Action Plan takes a sustainable development approach by taking into account the economic, social and environmental impacts of each measure.
Transport Canada forecasts that domestic air traffic will grow at an average annual rate of 2.8 percent until 2020, while international air traffic will grow at a rate of 4.4 percent (see Figure 4). Transport Canada’s forecast is largely in line with the air traffic forecasts produced by the aviation industry.13
Source: Transport Canada, Economic Analysis.
The accuracy of all traffic forecasts depend on a number of variables, including economic conditions. Transport Canada’s forecast was produced in June 2011 and does not reflect the recent economic turmoil in international financial markets.
In response to changing markets, Canadian airlines continually modernize their fleets and adjust fleet use. NACC airlines plan to invest over $13.7 billion more between 2011 and 2020. When compared to earlier investments in fleet modernization from 2001 to 2010, the resulting fuel efficiency gains will be relatively small because the next significant gains will likely occur after 2020, through new aircraft designs, new engines, etc.
The fleet renewal efficiency gains are dependent on two assumptions:
Canada’s air traffic management system and airport facilities have also been greatly improved over the past two decades. So, while real environmental benefits have been realized, the expected growth in air traffic will require the Canadian aviation industry to continue to make further advances.
Moving forward, the development of sustainable alternative aviation fuels will be a key initiative required by the aviation industry to meet the global aspirational goal of carbon neutral growth from 2020. Substantial advances in developing and commercializing sustainable alternative aviation fuels will be needed in light of the key issues related to limited fuel options and availability of supply for aviation.
In 2006, the Government of Canada developed a comprehensive renewable fuels strategy primarily focussed on on-road transportation with four key elements:
The Government of Canada will continue to assess the progress of the renewable fuels strategy and analyze areas for future policy development.
Canada recognizes the interdependencies of the environmental effects from aviation, such as noise and engine emissions, which affect the global climate and local air quality. Canada also recognizes that there will be tradeoffs among environmental objectives, such as between noise and emission reductions. These interdependencies will be considered when establishing policies and measures to minimize or reduce these effects, recognizing that the interdependencies could limit the full potential of the environmental benefit of the proposed measures.
The measures detailed below will help Canada achieve the fuel efficiency target over the next five years (see Appendices B and C for more details). These measures are listed separately from those in the next section (Section 6) because they represent the greatest opportunities to improve fuel efficiency and reduce GHGs.
NAV CANADA will also continue to use existing mechanisms to engage customers and stakeholders who may be affected by any changes to the Air Navigation System.
Appendices Band C for more details), whose expected results are not expressed in quantitative terms due to the nature of the activity or their current stage of implementation. These measures will be essential to achieving the long-term aspirational goals.
Significant research efforts are underway to minimize or reduce aviation’s environmental impacts and to inform the development of future regulations. This research provides valuable information to the Government of Canada, ICAO, other governments, industry and communities on how to best address these environmental impacts. Research findings will be shared with interested parties, including Working Group members. The research is being directed in a number of key areas, including:
In addition to these research initiatives, the Aerospace Industries Association of Canada (AIAC) will encourage its members to engage in research and development, as well as to produce new and innovative technologies on aircraft and aircraft engines as soon as it is safe, legal and practical, with a view to improve fuel efficiency and reduce GHG emissions.
The Working Group on Aviation Emissions19 will oversee Canada’s Action Plan. Its members are representatives from:
The Working Group will meet at least twice a year, to monitor individual and collective progress made towards achieving Canada’s fuel efficiency target.
An Annual Report will summarize the progress that has been made in meeting GHG emission reduction goals and other Action Plan activities. The first Annual Report will be published by December 31, 2013 on the Transport Canada website.
The Annual Reports will include:
For the first two years, the aviation activity and emission data reported in the Annual Reports will be aggregated for domestic and international aviation. Beginning with the 2014 Annual Report, domestic and international aviation activity and emission data will be reported separately.
Subject to applicable laws of Canada, Working Group members agree that any and all company-specific information shall be treated as commercially confidential and will not be released to the public domain without the consent of the relevant company.
The Working Group will conduct a review of the Action Plan in three years to assess progress towards the environmental goals and commitments, and update the Action Plan.
To ensure continued confidence in the reliability of the reports, a qualified auditor, chosen by the Working Group, will be given access at least once over the next five years of the Action Plan, to audit the reports, processes, and supporting documentation that pertain to the Action Plan.
The 2005 fuel consumption baseline is referenced from data reported annually by ATAC and NACC in the Canadian Aviation Industry Report on Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reductions.
|Fuel use (million litres)||4,616||4,829||4,634||4,584||4,566||4,887||5,186||5,543||5,575||5,077||5,659|
|GHG emissions (millions of tonnes of CO2-equivalent)||11.801||12.346||11.846||11.719||11.673||12.495||13.258||14.171||14.254||12.980||14.467|
|Available seat-kilometres (ASK)||75.22||109.58||117.71||120.01||123.14||131.98||139.48||151.55||154.05||152.66||156.81|
|Revenue passenger-kilometres (RPK)||66.37||86.68||89.08||89.24||95.18||105.22||112.98||124.15||125.55||117.62||128.77|
|Passenger revenue-tonne-kilometres (pass. RTK) *||6.64||8.67||8.91||8.92||9.52||10.52||11.30||12.42||12.55||11.76||12.88|
|Cargo available tonne-kilometres (cargo ATK)||11.12||13.63||13.37||11.85||12.21||13.22||13.54||14.45||14.12||14.11||15.26|
|Cargo revenue-tonne-kilometres (cargo RTK)||1.72||1.71||1.74||1.49||1.54||1.56||1.52||1.81||1.56||1.37||1.93|
|Total available tonne-kilometres (Total ATK)||18.65||24.59||25.14||23.85||24.52||26.41||27.48||29.61||29.52||29.38||30.94|
|Total revenue-tonne-kilometres (Total RTK)||8.36||10.38||10.65||10.42||11.06||12.08||12.81||14.22||14.12||13.14||14.81|
|Fuel consumption rates|
|CO2e grams/Total ATK||633||502||471||491||476||473||482||479||483||442||466|
|CO2e grams/Total RTK||1,412||1,189||1,112||1,125||1,055||1,034||1,035||996||1,010||988||969|
Source: 2010 Canadian Aviation Industry Report on Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reductions, March 2012, p.10.
* Note that Passenger RTK are calculated by dividing RPK by 100 kg, which is the industry’s conventional assumption of the average weight per passenger, including luggage.
|Measure||Description||Start Date||Date of Full Implementation||GHG / Fuel Efficiency Impact||Economic Cost (CDN$)||List of Stakeholders|
|Fleet Renewals and Upgrades||Retire older airplanes and bring newer, more efficient airplanes into service.||Ongoing||Ongoing||Average annual 0.7% fuel efficiency improvement from 2005 to 2020||$13.7 billion from 2011 to 2020.||Canadian airlines, CBAA|
|More Efficient Air Operations||Canadian airlines to improve fuel efficiency through more efficient air operations.||Ongoing||Ongoing||Average annual 0.2% fuel efficiency improvement from 2005 to 2020||To Be Determined||Canadian airlines, CBAA|
|Guidance on Operational Opportunities— New ICAO Manual||Transport Canada to continue to work through ICAO to encourage technology and operational improvements.||Update expected in 2012||Ongoing||N/A||N/A||Transport Canada, ICAO, Aviation industry stakeholders|
|Performance Based Navigation||Shift from sensor-based to performance-based navigation.||Ongoing||Ongoing||Average annual 1 to 2% fuel efficiency improvement from 2005 to 2020||To Be Determined||NAV CANADA, Transport Canada, Aviation industry stakeholders|
|Aviation Environmental Research and Development||Active engagement and support of aviation-related research initiatives, including: GARDN, PARTNER, the NRC, and the U.S. ACRP.||Ongoing||Ongoing||N/A||To Be Determined||Transport Canada, Industry Canada, Aviation industry stakeholders|
|Alternative Fuels||The Government of Canada to continue to support research in the development and demonstration of alternative fuels for aviation.||Ongoing||Ongoing||To Be Determined||To Be Determined||Government of Canada, Aviation industry stakeholders, U.S. partners|
|Alternative Fuels||The Government of Canada and aviation industry to discuss the potential for, benefits of, and barriers to alternative aviation fuel production and use in Canada.||Ongoing||Ongoing||To Be Determined||To Be Determined||Government of Canada, Aviation industry, other stakeholders|
|Reducing GHG Emissions at the Gate and on the Ground||Reduce emissions from using APUs and ground support equipment.||Ongoing||Ongoing||To Be Determined||To Be Determined||CAC, Canadian airlines, CBAA|
|Taxi Operations||Reduce taxi times, thereby improving fuel efficiency.||Ongoing||Ongoing||To Be Determined||To Be Determined||NAV CANADA, CAC, Canadian airlines, CBAA|
|Airport GHG Emission Inventories||Use existing GHG inventories for airports to adopt GHG reducing measures.||Ongoing||Ongoing||N/A||N/A||Transport Canada, CAC, Canadian airlines, CBAA|
|CO2 Standard for Airplanes||Through ICAO, develop a new CO2 standard for new airplanes and adopt the new standard domestically.||Standard for new airplanes targeted for completion within two years||Domestic regulatory implementation within two years of ICAO adopting the new standard||To Be Determined||To Be Determined||Transport Canada, Aviation industry stakeholders|
|Non-volatile Particulate Matter Standard||Develop the certification requirement for a new non-volatile particulate matter standard for aircraft engines.||Standard expected by 2016||Domestic regulatory implementation within two years of ICAO adopting the new standard||N/A||To Be Determined||Transport Canada, Aviation industry stakeholders|
|International Coordination||Active participation through ICAO on implementing global approaches and standards to address the impact to the global climate.||Ongoing||Ongoing||N/A||To Be Determined||Transport Canada, Aviation industry stakeholders|
The Working Group identified areas of focus where industry cooperation and synergies can help achieve future emission reductions. To help explore these areas of focus, subgroups were established to identify and advance emission reduction opportunities in the following areas:
Performance-based Navigation (PBN) will provide benefits to equipped aircraft operators by allowing more efficient and flexible en route and terminal (airport) operations than existing ground-based navigation. PBN includes both Area Navigation (RNAV) and Required Navigation Performance (RNP).
The PBN concept represents a shift from sensor-based to performance-based navigation. Performance requirements are identified in navigation specifications, which also identify the choice of navigation sensors and equipment that may be used to meet the performance requirements. These navigation specifications are defined at a sufficient level of detail to facilitate global harmonization by providing specific implementation guidance for States and operators. The PBN concept specifies that aircraft RNAV system performance requirements be defined in terms of the accuracy, integrity, availability, continuity and functionality, which are needed for the proposed operations in the context of a particular airspace concept.
Increased airborne and surface (airport) surveillance capability will make ground and air operations more efficient. This means increased airspace capacity, faster response times to pilot requests, more flexible routing and less ground delays.
There are various technologies that can increase surveillance capability and coverage in what is today’s procedural airspace. NAV CANADA will use a mix of surveillance technologies to maximize benefits and minimize costs, using a business case process.
Airlines and airports have been working closely together to identify ways to reduce emissions from the use of auxiliary power units (APUs) and ground support equipment (GSE).
Emissions from an aircraft’s APUs can be greatly reduced if ground-based alternatives are available and used. GSE is either owned directly by airlines or contracted by airlines from third-party providers and is a major part of airport ground operations. Airlines and airports are:
These emission reduction opportunities support the Action Plan’s targets. The range of potential GHG reductions from these opportunities will be quantified as appropriate and feasible. The Working Group understands that these targets are intensity-based and will take into account an increase in flight schedules and equipment inventory.
Over the next five years (2012-2017), the APU/GSE subgroup will meet quarterly in order to:
The partners mentioned above have agreed to:
The importance of managing aircraft taxi times increases with the increased number of aircraft ground movements (the busier the airport the more important this initiative becomes). This group will identify opportunities to reduce GHG emissions through improved taxiing and queuing procedures at Canadian airports and reduce overall taxi times. In simple terms, the goal is to limit aircraft main engine run time on the ground.
The partners mentioned above have agreed to advance:
To meet the global aspirational goal of carbon neutral growth from 2020, substantial advances in developing and commercializing sustainable alternative aviation fuels will be required. The alternative fuels subgroup will work to identify potential opportunities to advance alternative fuels for aviation in Canada.
Significant improvements in Canada’s Air Traffic Management system have resulted in fuel savings and avoided emissions. It is estimated that over 20 million cumulative tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) will be avoided by 2020.
This figure below represents the potential of achievable benefits, and includes all initiatives that have been implemented up to and including 2010. Examples of these initiatives include RVSM, Northern Radar Expansion Program, Polar Routes, ADS-B Hudson Bay, and RNAV/RNP procedures. It does not include any PBN initiatives planned for implementation post-2010 timeframe.
Source: NAV CANADA CIFER Report 2012
|000 Tonnes of CO2e Avoided (Line)||30||62||94||133||186||261||372||511||720||994||1,305||1,671||2,063||2,500||2,959||3,445||3,936||4,443||4,964||5,503||6,060||6,635||7,232||7,849|
|Million Litres of Fuel Burn Avoided (Area)||80||163||248||350||488||686||977||1,343||1,892||2,615||3,432||4,393||5,425||6,574||7,780||9,059||10,348||11,680||13,052||14,469||15,932||17,446||19,013||20,637|
Canada has a relatively young and modern fleet, with the exception of airlines primarily providing service in the North. For example, the weighted average age of Canada’s three largest airlines (Air Canada, Jazz Aviation LP, and WestJet) is about 12 years.
|Airline||Average Age of Fleet (years)||Number of Aircraft|
|Jazz Aviation LP||15.8||139|
|Air North Charter||32.8||9|
|Total Weighted Average Age of Fleet:||13.4|
Source: Back Aviation Fleet PC (fleet as of December 14, 2011)
|Airline||Country||Average Age of Fleet (years)|
|British Airways||United Kingdom||12.6|
Source: Back Aviation Fleet PC (fleet as of December 14, 2011)
Aviation plays a key role in the Canadian economy. The following tables show the value and types of goods shipped by air.
|Sector/ Year||Air Exports*||Air Imports||Air Total||
Exp. & Imp.
|Air Share (percent)|
Source: Transport Canada, “Transportation in Canada 2010: Addendum – Table A22”, http://www.tc.gc.ca/media/documents/policy/addendum2010.pdf
Notes: R = Revised. P = Preliminary.
1 Total exports include domestic exports and re-exports.
|Exports by air*||2009R||2010P||Percent Change|
|Misc & other manufactured goods||24,411||28,106||15.1|
|Machinery & electrical equipment||11,839||11,239||-5.1|
|Plastics & chemical products||2,542||2,508||-1.3|
|Metal & Steel products||498||544||9.2|
|Automobiles & other transport equipment||82||96||17.8|
|Cement & non-metallic products||38||36||-3.6|
|LNG & Petroleum products+||50||3||-94.4|
|Minerals, ores & concentrates||1||2||105.3|
|Total Exports by air||40,034||43,120||7.7|
|Imports by air|
|Machinery & electrical equipment||22,362||23,732||6.1|
|Misc & other manufactured goods||20,221||22,865||13.1|
|includes aviation-related equipment||3,770||3,362||-10.8|
|Plastics & chemical products||9,511||8,769||-7.8|
|Metal and Steel products||962||994||3.3|
|Automobiles & other transport equipment||349||395||13.2|
|Cement & non-metallic products||132||132||-0.2|
|LNG & Petroleum products||28||51||85.3|
|Minerals, ores & concentrates||1||2||39.1|
|Total Imports by air||53,940||57,324||6.3|
Source: Transport Canada, “Transportation in Canada 2010: Addendum – Table A25”, http://www.tc.gc.ca/media/documents/policy/addendum2010.pdf
Notes: R = Revised. P = Preliminary.
1 Total exports include domestic exports and re-exports.
2 LNG = Liquefied natural gas
1 In this context, the aviation industry includes air carriers, air traffic management, airports, and aircraft and other aerospace technology manufacturers.
2 Statistics Canada, Aviation—Civil Aviation, Annual Operating and Financial Statistics, Canadian Air Carriers, Levels I to III, 2009. http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/51-004-x/51-004-x2010007-eng.pdf.
3 The United Kingdom Civil Aviation Authority, “UK Airline Statistics: 2009 Annual – Table 1.6 All Services”, http://www.caa.co.uk/docs/80/airline_data/2009Annual/Table_0_1_6_All_Services_2009.pdf.
4 Statistics Canada, “Air Carrier Operations in Canada – Unit Toll Services, Statement 10 (I, II)”, 2009; Statistics Canada”, “Air Carrier Operations in Canada, Charter Services, Statement 12 (I, II, III)” 2009.
5 The United Kingdom Civil Aviation Authority, “UK Airline Statistics: 2009 Annual – Table 1.7.4 Domestic Scheduled Services 2009” http://www.caa.co.uk/docs/80/airline_data/2009Annual/Table_0_1_7_4_Domestic_Scheduled_Services_2009.pdf.
6 Oxford Economics, Economic Benefits from Air Transport in Canada, 2009.
7 Environment Canada, Canada’s Emissions Trends, 2011. http://www.ec.gc.ca/Publications/E197D5E7-1AE3-4A06-B4FC-CB74EAAAA60F%5CCanadasEmissionsTrends.pdf
8 Figure 2 is based on data that allocates emissions to the economic sector in which they are generated rather than by activity. The latter approach is used in Canada's National Inventory Report. As a result, the numbers between the two approaches are not necessarily comparable.
9 The CIFER reports are available at: http://www.navcanada.ca/NavCanada.asp?Language=en&Content=ContentDefinitionFiles\AboutUs\Environment\CIFER\default.xml.
10 PBN procedures are more accurate and allow for shorter, more direct routes between two given points, as well as more efficient arrivals and departures. This reduces fuel burn and aircraft emissions.
11 World Economic Forum, The Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011: Beyond the Downturn, 2011. http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_TravelTourismCompetitiveness_Report_2011.pdf
12 2010 Aviation Industry Report on Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reductions, March 2012. This estimate assumed that the 2001 fuel consumption rate of 0.4651 litres per total Revenue Tonne Kilometres was held constant for each subsequent year until 2010. The resulting emissions were compared against the actual emissions reported for those years to come up with a figure for total emissions displaced over that time period.
13 For example, between 2010 and 2014, Transport Canada has forecasted domestic traffic to grow at a rate of 3.1 percent. In comparison, the October 2010 International Aviation Transport Association (IATA) has forecasted domestic growth to occur at a rate of 3.3 percent. For transborder traffic during the same period, Transport Canada forecasts 4.3 percent compared with IATA’s 3.7 percent.
14 For more information on the National Airlines Council of Canada’s efforts to improve fuel efficiency and reduce GHG emissions, refer to Improving Aviation Efficiency and Reducing emissions: A NACC Framework, 2011. http://www.airlinecouncil.ca/pdf/NACC_FuelEfficiency_Final_Eng.pdf
16 For more information on the Sustainable Development Technology Canada funds, please visit: http://www.sdtc.ca/index.php?page=about-our-funds&hl=en_CA.
17 Budget 2011 makes an additional $40 M available over two years.
18 For more information on APM, please visit: http://www.navcanada.ca/NavCanada.asp?Language=EN&Content=contentdefinitionfiles\technologysolutions\iatc\default.xml
19 The Working Group is chaired by Transport Canada and consists of one representative of each of the other member organizations.