Transportation and the Environment

Figure EN1: GHG Emissions (Mt CO2e) by Economic Sector, 2008

Figure EN1: GHG Emissions (Mt CO2e) by Economic Sector, 2008

 

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This graph shows that transportation is responsible for 171 million tons of CO2e and as such the largest producer of these emissions, followed by the oil and gas industry and the electricity-generating industry. Nearly half of transportation’s emissions, or 79 million tonnes of CO2e come from passenger road transportation.

 

Source: Environment Canada, 2011 Canada’s Emissions Trends (Calibrated to 2008 NIR)

Figure EN2: Green House Gas Emission Intensity of End-Use Sectors, 2000 and 2009

Figure EN2: Green House Gas Emission Intensity of End-Use Sectors, 2000 and 2009

 

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This graph shows that transportation and agriculture have the two highest greenhouse gas emission intensity, although they have both declined between 2000 and 2008

 

Source: Natural Resources Canada, Office of Energy Efficiency, Energy Use Data Handbook, 1990 to 2009.

Figure EN3: Total Transportation GHG Emissions, All Modes, 1990-2020

Figure EN3: Total Transportation GHG Emissions, All Modes, 1990-2020

 

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This graph shows that emissions from transportation rose from 120 million tonnes of CO2e in 1990 to 171 million tonnes in 2008 and should be at 180 million tonnes by 2020.

 

Source: Environment Canada, 2011, Canada’s Emissions Trends

Figure EN4: Distribution of Freight Tonne-Kilometres by Mode, 2000 and 2009

Figure EN4: Distribution of Freight Tonne-Kilometres by Mode, 2000 and 2009

 

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This graph shows that rail transportation has the highest share of freight tonne-kilometres ; however, between 2000 and 2008, road transportation has seen the biggest increase in modal share, at the expense of all other modes.

 

Source: Natural Resources Canada, Office of Energy Efficiency, Energy Use Data Handbook, 1990 to 2009.

Figure EN 5: Air Pollutant Emissions Trends from Transportation Sector (1990–2009)

Figure EN 5: Air Pollutant Emissions Trends from Transportation Sector (1990–2009)

 

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This graph shows that air pollution emissions in the transportation sector has been trending downwards for all pollutants between 1990 and 2008, with reductions of 25% top 50%. Volatile organic compounds registered the greatest decrease in emissions.

 

Sources: Environment Canada, National Pollutant Release Inventory, 2011

Figure EN6: Transportation Share of Total Air Pollutant and GHG Emissions (2009)

Figure EN6: Transportation Share of Total Air Pollutant and GHG Emissions (2009)

 

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This graph breaks down air pollution emissions by type of emissions and mode. Carbon oxide, the pollutant for which transportation is most responsible is produced mainly by light and off-road vehicles.

 

ONS: Open and Natural Sources

Sources:  Environment Canada, 2011 National Pollutant Release Inventory, and Environment Canada, 1990-2009 National Inventory Report.

Table EN7: National Aerial Surveillance Program Key Metrics 2004/5-2010/11

Fiscal Year Patrol Hours Vessel Over-flights Pollution Sightings Oil Volume (litres)
2004/5  1,224  6,539   59  3,485
2005/6  1,599  9,724   78   842
2006/7  1,649  10,063   98  2,107
2007/8  2,578  13,038   151  3,130
2008/9  2,340  9,947   183  2,863
2009/10  2,274  11,262   109  8,111
2010/11  2,506  12,365   84  30,987

Source: Transport Canada, Marine Safety

Figure EN8: Historical and Projected Emissions in Aviation

Figure EN8: Historical and Projected Emissions in Aviation

 

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This graph shows that emissions from air transportation rose from 6 million tonnes of CO2e in 1990 to 9 million tonnes in 2008 and should be at 11 million tonnes by 2020.

 

Source: Environment Canada, 2011, Canada’s Emissions Trends.

Figure EN9: Breakdown of Historical Air Pollutant Emissions in Aviation

Figure EN9: Breakdown of Historical Air Pollutant Emissions in Aviation

 

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This graph shows the evolution of different air pollutants produced by the air transportation industry. Between 1990 and 2008, sulfur oxide, nitrous oxide and organic volatile compounds all grew between 30% and 50% while particulate matters and carbon oxide experienced a 10% decline.

 

Source: Environment Canada, National Pollutant Release Inventory, 2011.

Figure EN10: Historical and Projected Emissions in Marine Transportation

Figure EN10: Historical and Projected Emissions in Marine Transportation

 

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This graph shows that emissions from marine transportation rose from 5 million tonnes of CO2e in 1990 to 6 million tonnes in 2008 and should be at 7 million tonnes by 2020.

 

Source: Environment Canada, Canada's Emission Trends, 2011

Figure EN11: Breakdown of Historical Air Pollutant Emissions in Marine Transportation

Figure EN11: Breakdown of Historical Air Pollutant Emissions in Marine Transportation

 

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This graph shows the evolution of different air pollutants produced by the marine transportation industry. Between 1990 and 2000, all pollutant emissions were significantly lower, however they have been on the rise since then and remain generally 15% below their 1990 level. Sulfur oxide emissions were reduced by over 25% between 1990 and 2008.

 

Source: Environment Canada, National Pollutant Release Inventory, 2011.

Figure EN12: Trend of Freight-Related Rail Transportation Emissions

Figure EN12: Trend of Freight-Related Rail Transportation Emissions

 

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This graph shows that emissions from freight-related rail transportation rose from 6.6 million tonnes of CO2e in 1990 to 6.8 million tonnes in 2008. It is expected to fall-off until 2012 and then return to its 2008 level by 2020.

 

Source:  Environment Canada, Canada's Emission Trends, 2011

Figure EN13: Trend of Passenger Rail Transportation Emissions

Figure EN13: Trend of Passenger Rail Transportation Emissions

 

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This graph shows that emissions from passenger-related rail transportation dropped from 400,000 tonnes of CO2e in 1990 to 200,000 million tonnes in 2008, a level it will maintain until 2020.

 

Source:  Environment Canada, Canada's Emission Trends, 2011

Figure EN14: Breakdown of Historical Air Pollutant Emissions in Rail Transportation

Figure EN14: Breakdown of Historical Air Pollutant Emissions in Rail Transportation

 

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This graph shows the evolution of different air pollutants produced by the rail transportation industry. It was stable between 1990 and 2003. Since then, sulfur oxide has dropped by 60% while organic volatile compounds and particulate matters have risen between 30% and 50%.

 

Source: Environment Canada, 2011, National Pollutant Release Inventory.

Figure EN15: Trend of Light Duty Vehicles GHG Emissions (1990 2020)

Figure EN15: Trend of Light Duty Vehicles GHG Emissions (1990 2020)

 

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This graph shows that emissions from light vehicles rose from 70 million tonnes of CO2e in 1990 to 85 million tonnes in 2008. It will rise further to 89 million tonnes in 2020 without new environmental regulations or drop to 80- million tonnes if regulations are enacted.

 

Source: Environment Canada, 2011, Canada’s Emissions Trends.

Figure EN16: Trends in Light Duty Vehicles Air Pollutant Emissions (1990–2009)

Figure EN16: Trends in Light Duty Vehicles Air Pollutant Emissions (1990–2009)

 

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This graph shows the evolution of different air pollutants produced by light vehicles. They have generally decreased by 60% between 1990 and 2008, except for sulfur oxide which first rose about 30% before declining to only 10% of its 1990 levels.

 

Source: Environment Canada, 2011, National Pollutant Release Inventory.

Figure EN17: Trend of Medium and Heavy Duty Vehicles GHG Emissions (1990–2020)

Figure EN17: Trend of Medium and Heavy Duty Vehicles GHG Emissions (1990 2020)

 

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This graph shows that emissions from medium and heavy-duty vehicles rose from 27 million tonnes of CO2e in 1990 to 55 million tonnes in 2008 and should be at 65 million tonnes by 2020.

 

Source: Environment Canada, 2011, Canada’s Emissions Trends.

Figure EN18: Trends in Medium and Heavy Duty Vehicles Air Pollutant Emissions

Figure EN18: Trends in Medium and Heavy Duty Vehicles Air Pollutant Emissions

 

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This graph shows the evolution of different air pollutants produced by medium and heavy-duty vehicles. They have generally decreased by 70% to 80% between 1990 and 2008, except for sulfur oxide which has been almost completely eliminated since 2006.

 

Source: Environment Canada, 2011, National Pollutant Release Inventory.

Table EN19: Rail Greenhouse Gas Emission Intensity by Type of operation

Railway Operation Units 2006 2007 2008 2009 MOU 2010 target
Class I Freight kg/1,000 RTK 17.4 17.32 17.61 16.94 16.98
Regional and Short Lines kg/1,000 RTK 14.77 15.22 15.8 14.2 15.38
Intercity Passenger kg/pax-km 0.13 0.13 0.12 0.13 0.12
Commuter Rail kg/pax 1.7 1.71 1.74 1.95 1.46

Note: RTK: Revenue Tonne Kilometre Pax-Km:Passenger-Kilometre

Source: Railway Association of Canada, 2009 LEM Report.

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