Locomotive Emissions Monitoring Program 2007

2 Traffic and Fuel Consumption Data

2.1 Freight Traffic Handled

As shown in Table 1 and Figure 1, traffic in 2007 handled by Canadian railways increased to 676.43 billion gross tonne-kilometres (GTK) from 671.00 billion GTK in 2006. For the 1990 reference year, the value was 454.94 billion GTK. Similarly, revenue traffic in 2007 rose to 361.62 billion revenue tonne-kilometres (RTK) from 355.83 billion RTK in 2006, and up from 250.13 billion RTK in 1990.  As a percentage, the traffic in GTK in 2007 was 0.4 percent over the 2006 level, and is now 47.5 percent over the 1990 level. RTK in 2007 increased by 1.6 percent compared to 2006 and 44.6 percent compared to 1990. Since 1990, the average annual growth was, respectively, 2.8 percent for GTK and 2.6 percent for RTK.

Table 1  Total Freight Traffic, Tonne-kilometres (billion)


Note: No data are available for the years 1990 to 2002 separating Class 1 and Short Line traffic.



Figure 1 : Total Freight Traffic (1990-2007)

Figure 1   Total Freight Traffic (1990-2007) Tonne-kilometres (billion)


In 2007, Class 1 GTK traffic increased by 1.4 percent to 638.66 billion from 629.93 billion in 2006. This was 94.4 percent of the total GTK hauled. Class 1 RTK traffic increased 2.2 percent in 2007 to 338.32 billion from 330.96 billion in 2006.  Class I railways accounted for 93.6 percent of the total RTK. Of the total freight traffic, Regional and Short Lines were responsible for 37.77 billion GTK (or 5.6 percent) and 23.30 billion RTK (or 6.4 percent).   In 2007, the Regional and Short Lines experienced a 6.3 percent decrease in RTK compared to 2006.  

2.1.1 Freight Carloads by Commodity Grouping

Figure 2 : Canadian Rail Originated Freight Carloads by Commodity Grouping [D]

Figure 2  Canadian Rail Originated Freight Carloads by Commodity Grouping


2.1.2 Class 1 Intermodal Traffic

The number of intermodal carloads handled by the Class 1 railways in Canada in 2007 rose to 828,020 from 816,132 in 2006, an increase of 1.46 percent.  Intermodal tonnage rose 3.8 percent to 32.70 million tonnes from 31.50 million tonnes in 2006.  Overall, since 1990 intermodal tonnage comprising both container-on-flat-car and trailer-on-flat-car traffic has risen 155.7 percent equating to an average annual growth of 9.2 percent. 

Figure 3 Class 1 Intermodal Tonnage(million) 

Figure 3 Class 1 Intermodal Tonnage (million)


Class 1 intermodal RTK totalled 84.73 billion in 2007 versus 82.62 billion for 2006, an increase of 2.6 percent.  Of the 338.32 billion RTK transported by the Class 1 railways in 2007, intermodal accounted for 25.0 percent of their RTK 2.

Intermodal service growth is an indication that the Canadian railways have been effective in partnering with shippers and the trucking industry to affect a modal shift in the transportation of goods.  According to railway sector analysts, each intermodal carload displaces about 2.8 trucks from Canada's highways 3.

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2 2008 Railway Trends, Railway Association of Canada

3  RAC / AAR



2.2 Passenger Traffic Handled

2.2.1 Intercity Passenger Services

Intercity passenger traffic in 2007 in Canada totalled 4.48 million, as compared to 4.32 million in 2006.  The carriers were VIA Rail Canada, CN / Algoma Central, Ontario Northland Railway and Tshiuetin Rail Transportation. Of the total, VIA Rail Canada transported 93.3 percent, representing 4.18 million passengers. This was a 2.2 percent increase from the 4.09 million transported in 2006, and an increase of 20.8 percent from 3.46 million in 1990.  In terms of revenue passenger-kilometres (RPK), the figure for 2007 was 1,407 million, the same as for 2006.  It is up from 1,235 million in 1990, a rise of 13.9 percent. The annual statistics since 1990 for VIA’s traffic and RPK are displayed in Figures 4 and 5.

Figure 4 VIA Rail Canada Passenger Traffic (million)

Figure 4 VIA Rail Canada Passenger Traffic (million)


Figure 5 VIA Rail Canada Revenue Passenger-Kilometres (million

Figure 5 VIA Rail Canada Revenue Passenger-Kilometres (million)


The parameter to express intercity train efficiency is ‘average passenger-kilometres (km) per train-kilometre (km)’.  As shown in Figure 6, VIA’s train efficiency in 2007 was 131 passenger-km per train-km, the same as in 2006, but above the 1990 baseline of 123.  As a percentage, train efficiency in 2007 was 6.5 percent over that in 1990.

Figure 6 VIA Rail Canada Train Efficiency

Figure 6 VIA Rail Canada Train Efficiency
(Passenger-kilometres per train-kilometre)


2.2.2 Commuter Rail

Commuter rail passengers in 2007 totalled 63.39 million. This is up from 60.63 million in 2006, an increase of 4.5 percent. As shown in Figure 7, by 2007, commuter traffic has increased 54.6 percent over the 1997 baseline of 41.00 million passengers when the RAC first started to collect commuter rail statistics. This is an average annual rate of 5.5 percent since 1997. The four commuter operations in Canada using diesel prime

Figure 7 Commuter Rail Passengers

Figure 7  Commuter Rail Passengers
(million)


movers are Agence métropolitaine de transport (serving the Montreal-centred region), Capital Railway (Ottawa), GO Transit (serving the Toronto-centred region) and West Coast Express (serving the Vancouver-centred region).

2.2.3 Tourist and Excursion Services

In 2007, the eleven railways offering tourist and excursion services transported 378 thousand passengers as contrasted to 360 thousand in 2006, an increase of 5.0 percent. The railways reporting these services were: Agence métropolitaine de transport , Alberta Prairie Railway Excursions, Barrie-Collingwood Railway, CN / Algoma Central (also operates a scheduled passenger service), CP / Royal Canadian Pacific, Great Canadian Railtour Company, Hudson Bay Railway, Ontario Northland Railway (also operates a scheduled passenger service), South Simcoe Railway, Tshiuetin Rail Transportation (which also operates a scheduled passenger service) and White Pass & Yukon Route.



2.3 Fuel Consumption

As shown in Table 2, total rail sector fuel consumption increased to 2,237.22 million L in 2007 from 2,210.38 million L in 2006 and from 2,060.66 million L in 1990. As a percentage, fuel consumption increased 1.2 percent over 2006 and 8.6 percent over 1990.

2.3.1 Freight Operations

Fuel consumption for all freight train, yard switching and work train operations in 2007 was 2,134.92 million litres, up from 2,109.21 million L in 2006 and 1,957.96 million L in 1990.  This is an increase of 1.2 percent over 2006 and 9.0 percent over 1990.  The trend in overall freight operations fuel consumption is shown in Table 2 and Figure 8.

Table 2 Canadian Rail Operations Fuel Consumption Litres (million)


Figure 8 Freight Operations Fuel Consumption Litres (million)

Figure 8 Freight Operations Fuel Consumption
Litres (million)


A measure of freight traffic fuel efficiency is the amount of fuel consumed per 1,000 RTK.  As shown in Figure 9, freight traffic fuel consumption decreased to 5.90 L per 1,000 RTK in 2007 from 5.93 L per 1,000 RTK in 2006 and has decreased from 7.83 L per 1,000 RTK in 1990.

As a percentage, freight traffic fuel consumption per 1,000 RTK in 2007 was 0.5 percent below the 2006 level and is 24.6 percent lower than in 1990.  Overall, this shows the ability of the Canadian freight railways to accommodate traffic growth while reducing fuel consumption per unit of work.

Figure 9 Freight Fuel Consumption per 1,000 RTK (Litres)

Figure 9 Freight Fuel Consumption per 1,000 RTK
(Litres)


This improved fuel efficiency by Canadian freight railways has been achieved primarily by replacing older locomotives with modern fuel-efficient EPA compliant locomotives.  As well, operating practices that reduce fuel consumption are being evaluated and implemented.  The fuel consumption reduction initiatives implemented or under examination in 2007 are discussed in Section 7.

Table 3 shows the freight operations fuel consumption by service type for 2007 compared to years 2006, 2005, 2004 and 2003.  Of the total diesel fuel consumed in freight operations in 2007, Class 1 freight trains accounted for 91.3 percent, Regional and Short Lines 5.5 percent and Yard Switching and Work Train 3.2 percent. 

Table 3 Freight Operations Fuel Consumption
Litres (million)

  2003 2004 2005 2006 2007
Freight Train Operations          
Freight: Class 1 1,775.80 1,870.60 1,893.19 1,914.92 1,948.75
Freight: Regional and Short Line 133.60 138.90 140.14 122.13 117.89
Sub-total 1,909.40 2,009.50 2,033.33 2,037.05 2,066.64
Yard Switching 69.20 70.79 67.85 64.67 62.20
Work Train 4.90 4.17 6.73 7.49 6.09
Sub-total 2 74.10 74.96 74.58 72.16 68.29
Total 1,983.50 2,084.46 2,107.91 2,109.21 2,134.92

2.3.2 Passenger Services

Overall rail passenger fuel consumption, that is, the sum of intercity, commuter and tourist and excursion train operations, was 102.30 million L in 2007, slightly up from 101.17 million L in 2006, a rise of 1.1 percent.  The breakdown and comparison with previous years are shown on Table 4. 

VIA’s fuel consumption in 2007 increased 0.4 percent over that of 2006.  Commuter rail fuel consumption in 2007 increased 5.0 percent over the 2006 level. 

Table 4 Passenger Services Fuel Consumption
Litres (million)

  2003 2004 2005 2006 2007
VIA Rail Canada 60.99 60.37 60.09 *58.63 58.97
Amtrak   0.65 0.64 0.64 0.64
Commuter 31.54 33.79 35.31 34.23 35.94
Tourist Train and Excursion 6.65 5.12 5.06 7.67 6.75
Total 99.18 99.93 101.10 101.17 102.30

* Corrected to 58.75  following 2007 audit