Appendix D: Procedures for Simulated Pool-Fire and Torch-Fire Testing

D1. Thermal Protection Systems

D1.1 This test procedure is designed to measure the thermal effects of new or untried thermal protection systems and to test for system survivability when exposed to a 100 minute pool fire and a 30 minute torch fire.

D1.1.1 Simulated Pool-fire Test

  1. A pool-fire environment must be simulated in the following manner:
    1. The source of the simulated pool fire must be a hydrocarbon fuel with a flame temperature of 870 ± 56°C (1600 ± 100°F), throughout the duration of the test;
    2. A square bare plate with thermal properties equivalent to the material of manufacture of the tank car must be used. The plate dimensions must be at least 30.5 x 30.5 cm (1 x 1 ft.) by nominal 16 mm (5/8 in.) thick. The bare plate must be instrumented with not less than nine thermocouples to record the thermal response of the bare plate. The thermocouples must be attached to the surface not exposed to the simulated pool fire and must be divided into nine equal squares with a thermocouple placed in the centre of each square;
    3. The pool-fire simulator must be manufactured in a manner that results in total flame engulfment of the front surface of the bare plate. The apex of the flame must be directed at the centre of the plate;
    4. The bare plate holder must be manufactured so that the only heat transfer to the back side of the bare plate is by heat conduction through the plate and not by other heat paths;
    5. Before the bare plate is exposed to the simulated pool fire, none of the temperature recording devices may indicate a plate temperature in excess of 37.8°C (100°F) nor less than 0°C (32°F);
    6. A minimum of two thermocouples must indicate 427°C (800°F) after 13 ± 1 min of simulated pool-fire exposure;
  2. A thermal protection system must be tested in the simulated pool-fire environment described in clause D1.1.1 a. in the following manner:
    1. The thermal protection system must cover one side of a bare plate as described in clause D1.1.1 a. ii;
    2. The non-protected side of the bare plate must be instrumented with not less than nine thermocouples placed as described in clause D1.1.1 a. ii to record the thermal response of the plate;
    3. Before exposure to the pool-fire simulation, none of the thermocouples on the thermal protection system configuration may indicate a plate temperature in excess of 37.8°C (100°F) nor less than 0°C (32°F);
    4. The entire surface of the thermal protection system must be exposed to the simulated pool-fire environment;
    5. A pool-fire simulation test must run for a minimum of 100 min. The thermal protection system must retard the heat flow to the plate so that none of the thermocouples on the non-protected side of the bare plate indicate a plate temperature in excess of 427°C (800°F);
    6. A minimum of three consecutive successful pool-fire simulation tests must be performed for each thermal protection system;

D1.1.2 Simulated Torch-fire Test

  1. A torch-fire environment must be simulated in the following manner:
    1. The source of the simulated torch fire must be a hydrocarbon fuel with a flame temperature of 1200 ± 56°C (2200 ± 100°F), throughout the duration of the test. Furthermore, torch velocities must be 64 ± 16 km/h (40 ± 10 mph) throughout the duration of the test;
    2. A square bare plate with thermal properties equivalent to the material of manufacture of the tank car must be used. The plate dimensions must be at least 120 x 120 cm (4 x 4 ft.) by nominal 16 mm (5/8 in.) thick. The bare plate must be instrumented with not less than nine thermocouples to record the thermal response of the bare plate. The thermocouples must be attached to the surface not exposed to the simulated torch fire and must be divided into nine equal squares with a thermocouple placed in the centre of each square;
    3. The bare plate holder must be manufactured so that the only heat transfer to the back side of the bare plate is by heat conduction through the plate and not by other heat paths. The apex of the flame must be directed at the centre of the plate;
    4. Before the bare plate is exposed to the simulated torch fire, none of the temperature recording devices may indicate a plate temperature in excess of 37.8°C (100°F) or less than 0°C (32°F)
    5. A minimum of two thermocouples must indicate 427°C (800°F) after 4 min ± 30 s of simulated torch-fire exposure;
  2. A thermal protection system must be tested in the simulated torch-fire environment described in clause D1.1.2 a. in the following manner:
    1. The thermal protection system must cover one side of a bare plate as described in clause D1.1.2 a. ii;
    2. The non-protected side of the bare plate must be instrumented with not less than nine thermocouples placed as described in clause D1.1.2 a. ii. to record the thermal response of the plate;
    3. Before exposure to the torch-fire simulation, none of the thermocouples on the thermal protection system configuration may indicate a plate temperature in excess of 37.8°C (100°F) nor less than 0°C (32°F);
    4. The entire surface of the thermal protection system must be exposed to the simulated torch-fire environment;
    5. A torch-fire simulation test must be run for a minimum of 30 min. The thermal protection system must retard the heat flow to the plate so that none of the thermocouples on the non-protected side of the bare plate indicate a plate temperature in excess of 427°C (800°F);
    6. A minimum of two consecutive successful torch-fire simulation tests must be performed for each thermal protection system.

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