Fatigue-related safety performance indicators for air operators

Air operators monitor and manage factors that could cause fatigue risks for flight crews. These examples of safety performance indicators (SPIs) may help air operators to develop fatigue risk management system (FRMS) processes for safety performance monitoring.

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About fatigue-related SPIs

These examples of fatigue-related safety performance indicators (SPIs) are not meant to cover every operation. Managers may use different indicators depending on the type of flight operation.

Your indicators need to be based on:

  • the specific causes of fatigue risk in your operations
  • the intent of each applied risk control and mitigation

You can analyse and trend indicators by factors such as:

  • flight/route/pairing
  • aircraft type
  • crew base
  • crew member position
  • operating rule
  • time period

Duty-related SPIs

Examples of safety performance indicators (SPIs) related to duty periods:

  • Percentage of flight duty periods starting or ending in the window of circadian low (WOCL)
  • Number of take-offs and landings within the WOCL
  • Number of consecutive early duty periods
  • Number of consecutive late duty periods
  • Percentage of sectors on which controlled rest was used
  • Number of time zone changes for flight crew within a specified period
  • Number of reduced breaks within flight duty periods
  • Number of reduced rest periods between flight duty periods
  • Percentage of rest periods outside the WOCL
  • Rate of flight duty period extensions
  • Average length of flight duty period extensions
  • Name of departure station of flight duty period extensions
  • Name of arrival station of flight duty period extensions
  • Number of sectors in flight duty periods with flight time exceedances
  • Average length of flight time exceedances
  • Name of departure station of flight time exceedances
  • Name of arrival station of flight time exceedances
  • Percentage of reserve call-outs for all duties and monthly utilization
  • Frequency of exceeded maximum hours of work within a specified period

Report-related SPIs

Examples of safety performance indicators (SPIs) related to reporting:

  • Average fatigue report rate per specific flight/route/pairing
  • Percentage of fatigue reports during duty
  • Percentage of fatigue reports before duty
  • Percentage of reports submitted by more than 1 crew member
  • Percentage of reports where fatigue countermeasures were used
  • Percentage of reports with quality of sleep on board cited as a fatigue factor
  • Percentage of reports where hotel problems cited as fatigue factor
  • Number of times personnel reported fatigue from a previous work schedule as a cause of being unfit for duty, as a percentage of all duties
  • Ratio of fatigue reports for flights conducted under FRMS to fatigue reports for flights conducted under prescriptive requirements
  • Number of Flight Operational Quality Assurance / Flight Data Analysis Program events per flight/route/pairing with fatigue-related reports

Fatigue risk management system (FRMS)-related SPIs

Examples of safety performance indicators (SPIs) related to FRMS:

  • Level of participation by flight crew members in collecting fatigue data
  • Measured fatigue/alertness data (e.g. sleepiness scale ratings, alertness test scores, layover sleep duration) that’s outside specified acceptable thresholds
  • Average risk level of identified fatigue hazards
  • Number of fatigue risk assessments done
  • Percent of fatigue risk controls/mitigations implemented within a set timeframe
  • Percent of fatigue risk controls/mitigations reviewed for effectiveness
  • Number of fatigue-related events within a set period (trended against previous periods)
  • Percent of incidents or accidents in which fatigue is identified as a contributing or risk factor
  • Percent of FRMS investigations completed within a set timeframe
  • Number of non-conformance findings per internal FRMS audit
  • Percent of conformance with FRMS processes and procedures
  • Percent of action items from FRMS audits and investigations completed by the due date
  • Percent of FRMS training delivered to relevant personnel before they begin their FRMS duties
  • Percent of update/refresher training delivered to relevant personnel per annual FRMS training schedule
  • Percent of people failing FRMS competency assessment after the deadline
  • Percent of FRMS promotion activities completed per annual schedule

References

Adapted from:

  • International Air Transport Association (IATA) Fatigue SPIs
  • United Kingdom Civil Aviation Authority Fatigue Metrics
  • Civil Aviation Safety Authority of Australia Fatigue Risk Management System Handbook
  • Federal Aviation Administration Advisory Circular 120-103A
  • International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Manual for the Oversight of Fatigue Management Approaches
  • ICAO/International Business Aviation Council/Flight Safety Foundation Fatigue Management Guide for General Aviation Operators of Large and Turbojet Aeroplanes
  • ICAO/IATA/International Federation of Airline Pilots Associations Fatigue Management Guide for Airline Operators

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Email: TC.FCFM-GFEC.TC@tc.gc.ca

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