2019-2020 Flight Crew Recency Requirements Self-Paced Study Program

Refer to paragraph 421.05(2)(d) of the Canadian Aviation Regulations (CARs).

Completion of this questionnaire satisfies the 24-month recurrent training program requirements of CAR 401.05(2)(a). It is to be retained by the pilot.

All pilots are to answer questions 1 to 44. In addition:

  • aeroplane pilots are to answer questions 45 to 52;
  • ultra-light aeroplane pilots are to answer questions 53 to 56;
  • helicopter pilots are to answer questions 57 to 58;
  • balloon pilots are to answer questions 59;
  • glider pilots are to answer questions 60 to 63; and
  • gyroplane pilots are to answer questions 64 to 65.

References are listed after of each question. Many answers may be found in the Transport Canada Aeronautical Information Manual (TC AIM). Other answers can be found in the AIP Canada (ICAO). Amendments to these publications may result in changes to answers and/or references.


  1. State the difference between the terms “should” and “shall” as defined in the Transport Canada Aeronautical Information Manual (TC AIM) GEN 1.1.3.
    • a) The term “should” as used in the AIM means that pilots are
    • b) The term “shall” as used in the AIM means that

    Reference: GEN 1.1.3 Transport Canada Aeronautical Information Manual (TC AIM)

    Answer 1

    a) encouraged to conform with the applicable procedure;

    b) the applicable procedure is mandatory because it is supported by regulations.


  1. An aerodrome, airport, or heliport whose use can be limited, as listed in the Canada Flight Supplement (CFS) or Canada Water Aerodrome Supplement (CWAS), is called a private-use aerodrome. This can include:
    • a)
    • b)

    Reference: TC AIM AGA 2.2, CFS Section A58

    Answer 2

    PPR: The aerodrome operator’s permission is required prior to use. All military aerodromes require PPR for civilian aircraft.

    PN: The aerodrome operator owner or operator is to be notified prior to use so that current information on the aerodrome may be provided.


  1. The removal of the audio identification from non-directional beacons (NDB), VHF omnidirectional ranges (VOR), distance measuring equipment (DME), or instrument landing systems (ILS) warns pilots that the facility may be even though .

    Reference: TC AIM COM 4.2

    Answer 3

    unreliable, it may still transmit a navigation signal.

  2. Prior to using any navigation aid (NAVAID), pilots should check for information on NAVAID outages.

    Reference: TC AIM COM 4.2

    Answer 4


  3. After all normal communications failure procedures have been followed, is it permissible to contact an air traffic service (ATS) unit by cellular phone?

    Reference: TC AIM COM 1.12.2 c)

    Answer 5


  4. Pilots are encouraged to use the letter “” on VFR flight plans when using any type of global navigation satellite system (GNSS) to assist VFR navigation.

    Reference: RAC 3.16.4 (Table 3.9), CFS C4 Planning

    Answer 6


  5. If a VFR GPS with a current database is used on board an aircraft, do aeronautical charts still have to be carried on board?

    Reference: COM 5.11, CAR 602.59

    Answer 7



METAR CYXE 292000Z CCB 09015G25KT 3/4SM R09/4000FT/D –RA BR BKN008 0VC040 21/19 A2992 WS RWY 09 RMK SF5NS3 VIS NW 3/8 SLP134 DENSITY ALTITUDE 2500FT

  1. What does “CCB” mean?

    Reference: TC AIM MET 8.3

    Answer 8

    Means the second correction

  2. What does “WS” mean?

    Reference: TC AIM MET 8.3

    Answer 9

    WS means wind shear

  3. What is the lowest ceiling?

    Reference: TC AIM MET 8.3

    Answer 10

    800 feet (ft.) above ground level (AGL)

RAC–Rules of the Air and Air Traffic Services

  1. What is the new private advisory station (PAS) frequency that replaces 122.75 MHz?

    Reference: Amendment of Change and RAC 1.2.1 UNICOM, which states: Frequency 122.75 was replaced with 122.35 MHz.

    Answer 11


  2. A minimum fuel advisory imply an air traffic control (ATC) traffic priority.

    Reference: TC AIM RAC 1.8.3

    Answer 12

    does not

  3. Traffic priority is given to a pilot who declares an emergency for fuel by broadcasting -

    Reference: TC AIM RAC 1.8.3

    Answer 13


  4. Does declaring a MAYDAY relieve you of complying with the ATC instruction issued to you prior you declaring the MAYDAY?

    Reference: TC AIM RAC 1.7 and RIC-21—Study Guide for the Restricted Operator Certificate with Aeronautical Qualification (ROC-A)

    Answer 14

    Yes, MAYDAY indicates the pilot is “threatened by grave and imminent danger and requires immediate assistance”. If unable to comply with the clearance, pilots should immediately inform ATC since the controller will understand the acknowledgement of the clearance as indicating acceptance.

  5. No person may conduct aerial activities within active Class F restricted airspace, unless has been obtained from the .

    Reference: TC AIM RAC 2.8.6

    Answer 15

    permission; user agency

  6. During En route flight in the altimeter setting region, the altimeter shall be set to the altimeter setting of the along the route of flight.

    Reference: TC AIM RAC 2.10

    Answer 16

    current; nearest station

  7. The standard summer weights (including personal clothing and carry-on baggage) of a male and female (over 12 years) are, respectively, and .

    Reference: TC AIM RAC 3.5.7 Table 3-1

    Answer 17

    Male 200 lbs. or 90.7 kg. and Female 165 lbs. or 74.8 kg.

  8. You are flying an aircraft configured for up to five passenger seats. What is the recommended weight you would use for computing your weight and balance for the aircraft?

    Reference: TC AIM RAC 3.5.7

    Answer 18

    Recommended using actual weight

  9. CAR 602.73 states that no pilot-in-command shall operate an aircraft in VFR flight unless a VFR flight plan or a VFR flight itinerary has been filed, except where the flight is conducted within NM of the departure aerodrome.

    Reference: TC AIM RAC 3.6

    Answer 19


  10. You are joining the circuit straight in on the downwind for a left pattern at an uncontrolled airport and you hear another pilot joining overhead crosswind but cannot see this pilot. What would you do?

    Reference: TC AIM RAC 4.5.2 and Figure 4.6 Standard Left-Hand Circuit Pattern

    Text version – Figure 4.6—Standard Left-hand Circuit Pattern

    This figure shows the standard left-hand circuit pattern. It identifies the crosswind, downwind, base and final legs of the circuit and includes arrows to show how to integrate a circuit at uncontrolled aerodromes.

    Answer 20

    Make appropriate radio call. Search for your traffic. Ascertain there is no conflict then continue joining the circuit. If a conflict exists, you may consider widening/narrowing and/or increasing/decreasing your airspeed to sequence.

  11. The aerodrome traffic frequency (ATF) will normally be the frequency of universal communications (UNICOM) where one exists or MHz where a UNICOM does not.

    Reference: TC AIM RAC 4.5.5

    Answer 21


  12. No person shall operate an aircraft at a distance of less than ft. from a person, vessel, vehicle or structure when not over a built-up area or over an open-air assembly and permitted under CAR 602.14?

    Reference: CAR 602.14

    Answer 22

    500 ft.

  13. What should you include in a VFR position report?

    Reference: TC AIM RAC 5.1

    Answer 23

    The following reporting format is recommended:

    1. Identification
    2. Position
    3. Time over
    4. Altitude
    5. VFR / VFR-OTT
    6. Destination

SAR–Search & Rescue

  1. If unable to establish communication immediately with an ATC unit, a pilot wishing to alert ATC to an emergency situation should adjust the transponder to reply on code . Communication with ATC should be established as soon as possible thereafter.

    Reference: TC AIM SAR 4.4

    Answer 24


  2. For purposes of search and rescue, the symbol X on the ground indicates .

    Reference: TC AIM SAR 4.8

    Answer 25

    Require medical assistance

  3. Flying below the maximum elevation figure (MEF) may place the aircraft in jeopardy of ?

    Reference: Legend of VFR navigation chart (VNC)

    Answer 26

    hitting an obstacle or terrain

MAP–Aeronautical Charts & Publications

  1. Which organization has been delegated the responsibility of collecting, evaluating, and disseminating aeronautical information in the AIP Canada (ICAO), Canada Flight Supplement (CFS), Canada Water Aerodrome Supplement (CWAS) and Canada Aeronautical Charts?

    Reference: TC AIM MAP Section 1.0 Page 345

    Answer 27


  2. Where will you find the regulations and information regarding the airspace surrounding an area of forest fire? (Select all that apply.)
    1. CARs 602.14 and CARs 602.15
    2. CARs 601.15 and CARs 601.16
    3. Aerodrome NOTAM File
    4. Appropriate FIR NOTAM File

    Reference: TC AIM MAP Note in paragraph 3.6.10(b), Page 358

    Answer 28

    b. CARs 601.15 and CARs 601.16; d. Appropriate FIR NOTAM File

  3. Aerodrome NOTAMs will cover activities of particular interest to a specific aerodrome within NM and such activities occurring beyond that distance will be reported in the appropriate NOTAM file.

    Reference: TC AIM MAP Paragraph 3.6.10(c) Page 358

    Answer 29

    25; FIR

LRA–Licensing, Registration & Airworthiness

  1. The aviation document booklet (ADB) is valid for years. However, a licence holder with “operational” language proficiency must be re-tested every years and he or she will continue to be issued ADBs valid for up to years.

    Reference: TC AIM LRA 1.2

    Answer 30

    10, five, five

  2. Certificates of airworthiness are issued for aircraft that fully comply with .

    Reference: TC AIM LRA 5.3.2

    Answer 31

    all standards of airworthiness applicable to the category.

  3. A Canadian medical certificate for a private pilot licence is valid for months if the pilot is under the age of 40, and for months if the pilot is 40 or older.

    Reference: LRA 2.2

    Answer 32

    60; 24

  4. In accordance with CAR 401.08, every applicant for, and every holder of, a flight crew permit, licence, or rating shall maintain a .

    Reference: LRA 1.5, CAR 401.08

    Answer 33

    personal log

  5. According to recency requirements of CAR 401.05, if pilots wish to act as pilot-in-command (PIC) or co-pilot of an aircraft, they must meet both the and the recency requirements. If they wish to carry passengers, they must also meet the requirement.

    Reference: LRA 1.12, CAR 401.05(2)

    Answer 34

    five-year, two-year, six-month

  6. In addition to the particulars of any defect in any part of the aircraft or its equipment that becomes apparent during flight operations, pilots must also enter the particulars of any to which the aircraft has been subjected into the aircraft’s records.

    Reference: CAR 605.94; TC AIM-LRA 5.6.1

    Answer 35

    abnormal occurrence (Example: a hard landing)


  1. It is strongly recommended that owners equip their aircraft with the manufacturer’s recommended . The should be arranged in an sequence having regard to the layout.

    Reference: TC AIM AIR 1.2

    Answer 36

    checklists; checklists; orderly; cockpit

  2. Winds that are deflected around large single mountain peaks or through the of mountain ranges tend to speed which results in a local of pressure (Bernoulli’s Principle). A pressure altimeter within such an airflow would be subject to an error in altitude.

    Reference: TC AIM AIR 1.5.6

    Answer 37

    valleys; increase; decrease; increased

  3. The “drop” in pressure associated with increased in wind speed and altimeter errors caused by non-standard temperature may result in an altimeter overreading by as much as feet?

    Reference: LRA 2.2

    Answer 38

    3 000 ft

AIP Canada (ICAO) Aeronautical Information Circular (AIC)

  1. What is the title of AIP Canada (ICAO) Aeronautical Information Circular (AIC) 19/19?

    Reference: Part 5–Aeronautical Information Circulars (AIC)

    Answer 39

    Transition to the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) NOTAM Format for All Canadian NOTAMs

  2. What is the title of AIP Canada (ICAO) Supplement 20/19?

    Reference: AIP Canada (ICAO) Supplements

    Answer 40

    Quebec Region Restrictions to Airspace over 10 Provincial Detention Facilities


  1. In the Public Facilities (PF), what does C 6 mean?

    Reference: CFS General Section A.

    Answer 41

    Car rental within 5 NM of aerodrome

  2. To enter Class C Airspace a VFR flight requires a and a transponder incorporating an automatic pressure altitude device.

    Reference: CFS Section C Planning

    Answer 42

    clearance, functioning

  3. Is the UNICOM frequency at an aerodrome always the frequency to turn the aircraft radio control of aerodrome lighting (ARCAL) runway lights on? (Yes or No). Where would you find the ARCAL lighting frequencies to activate the runway lights at an aerodrome?

    Note: Aerodromes may have a different frequency for turning runway lights on. For example: CFS, SMITHS FALLS-MONTAGUE (CYSH) Aerodrome COMM/ATF Unicom is 122.7, while LIGHTING ARCAL is 122.9 Type K.

    Text version – Question 43 - Image



    Rwy 60(064°)/24(244°) 3998x75 asphalt  Rwy 24 up 0.7% first third
    Opr  Ltd win maint


    06-(TE  ME) AP, 24-(TE  ME) AP  ARCAL-122.9 type K



    UNICOM ltd hrs O/T tfc 122.7  5 NM 3400 ASL excluding the airspace that lies within
    Ottawa TCA class C airspace

    Answer 43

    No; CFS General Section LIGHTING.


  1. You are navigating in an area where both a VNC and VFR terminal area (VTA) chart, depicted below, exist. Where would you find the minimum altitude to overfly restricted area CYR 531 and CYR 508? What are the minimum altitudes?

    Reference: VTA Chart and Designated Airspace Handbook (TP 1820E) on the Nav Canada website

    Figure A – Toronto VNC

    Figure A- Toronto  VFR Navigation Charts (VNC) scale of 1:500,000

    Figure B – Ottawa VTA

    Figure B- Ottawa VFR Terminal Charts (VTA) scale of 1:250,000
    Answer 44

    CYR 508 Surface to 1400 feet, CYR 531 Surface to 1000 feet. Refer to VTA chart and/or Designated Airspace Handbook (TP 1820E) which states:


    The airspace within the area bounded by a line beginning at:
    N45°24’00.00” W075°55’00.00” to
    N45°22’00.00” W075°53’00.00” to
    N45°21’00.00” W075°55’00.00” to
    N45°23’00.00” W075°57’00.00” to
    N45°24’00.00” W075°55’00.00” point of beginning
    Designated Altitude - Surface to 1000’
    Time of Designation - Cont
    User/Controlling Agency Connaught Range Control (613) 991-5740 (CSN) 991-5740
    Operating Procedures - No person shall operate an aircraft within the area described unless the flight has been authorized by the User/Controlling Agency.

    CYR 508 Hazeldean, ON

    The airspace within the area are bounded by a circle of:
    0.4 mile radius centered on
    N45°19’18.00” W075°52’32.00”
    Designated - Surface to 1400’
    Altitude - Cont daylight
    Time of Designation User/Condition Agency - Natural Resources Canada, CANMET Facility (613) 995-1275
    Operating Procedures - No person shall operate an aircraft within the area described unless the flight has been authorized by the User/Controlling Agency

Aeroplane-specific questions

  1. You experience engine failure in cruise flight at 2 000 ft. What are the initial actions in the forced approach?
    1. ,
    2. ,

    Quote your Pilot Operating Handbook/Aircraft Flight Manual (POH/AFM) emergency checklist items as time permits.

    Reference: FTMEX 22 Force Approaches, Pilot Operating Handbook/Aircraft Flight Manual (POH/AFM)

    Answer 45
    1. Control aircraft-establish a glide.
    2. Choose your landing area.
    3. Plan your approach. Refer to the POH/AFM for specific details as time permits.
  2. What is the maximum load factor for your aeroplane?

    Reference: POH/AFM

    Answer 46

    See your POH/AFM

  3. On a VFR flight, if an approach to landing is not stabilized by ft. AGL, you should .

    Reference: TP 13723—Flight Test Guide - Private Pilot Licence—Aeroplane—March 2019,
    TP 12475—Flight Test Guide—Recreational Pilot Permit—Aeroplane—March 2019

    Answer 47

    200 ft.; go-around

  4. On a go-around, why might there be a tendency for the nose to pitch up abruptly? How do you control this tendency?

    Reference: FTM Exercise 5 Attitudes and Movements & Exercise 18 Approach and Landing

    Answer 48

    sudden application of power; use appropriate elevator and control attitude.

  5. What is the crosswind component of a wind 30° off the runway at 20 kts.?

    Reference: TC AIM AIR 1.6.6 Using Figure 1.1 Crosswind Li

    Answer 49

    10 kts. of crosswind.

  6. What would be the crosswind limit when the CFRI index is .25?

    Reference: TC AIM AIR 1.6.6 Using Figure 1. 1 Crosswind Limits for CFRI char

    Crosswind Limits for CFRI chart. This chart provides information for calculating headwind and crosswind components.
    Answer 50

    Max. crosswind limit of 5 kts.

  7. What does this marshalled signal of moving the right-hand wand in a “fanning” motion from shoulder to knee, while at the same time pointing with the left-hand wand to a particular area, mean?

    Reference: TC AIM AIR 1.8 Marshalling signals

    Answer 51
    This figure shows a person moving their right-hand wand in a “fanning” motion from shoulder to knee, while at the same time pointing with left-hand wand to area of fire.
  8. In an aeroplane in a stable climbing turn, the wing will stall first. In a stable descending turn, the wing will stall first.

    Reference: FTM Stalls Exercise 12

    Answer 52

    high (outside), low (inside)

Ultra-light-specific questions

  1. What is the definition of a basic ultra-light aeroplane?

    Reference: CAR 101

    Answer 53

    Basic ultra-light aeroplane means an aeroplane having no more than two seats, designed and manufactured to have

    • a) maximum take-off weight not exceeding 544 kg., and
    • b) a stall speed in the landing configuration (Vso) of 39 kts. (45 mph) indicated airspeed, or less, at the maximum take-off weight.
  2. What is the licensing requirement to carry a passenger in an ultra-light?

    Reference: CAR 401.21

    Answer 54

    401.21(b) and (c)

    401.21 The holder of a pilot permit—ultra-light aeroplane may, under day VFR,

    • a) act as pilot-in-command of an ultra-light aeroplane with no other person on board;
    • b) act as pilot-in-command of an ultra-light aeroplane with one other person on board if
      1. the holder’s permit is endorsed with a passenger-carrying rating,
      2. the ultra-light aeroplane has no restrictions against carrying another person, and
      3. the holder has completed training, including dual instruction and solo flight, on the class of ultra-light aeroplane being operated;
    • c) act as pilot-in-command of an ultra-light aeroplane with one other person on board if the other person is a holder of a pilot licence or permit, other than a student pilot permit, that allows them to act as pilot-in-command of an ultra-light aeroplane.
  3. What is the medical requirement for the passenger-carrying rating-ultra-light aeroplane?

    Reference: CAR standard 421.55

    Answer 55

    421.55 Requirements

    • 1) Medical Fitness
      • a) An applicant holds a Category 4 Medical Certificate valid for a Pilot Permit-Ultra-light Aeroplane.
      • b) An applicant who meets the medical conditions specified on the Civil Aviation Medical Declaration and has signed it is considered to have met the Category 4 Medical Standards, providing a physician licensed to practice medicine in Canada has signed Part C of the declaration.
      • c) The medical validity period for the permit holder under 40 years of age is 60 months and for a permit holder 40 years of age or over, is 24 months.
      • d) The permit is maintained by a valid Category 1, 3, or 4 Medical Certificate.
  4. What is an advanced ultra-light aeroplane?

    Reference: CAR 101.01

    Answer 56

    Advanced ultra-light aeroplane means an aeroplane that has a type design that is in compliance with the standards specified in the manual entitled Design Standards for Advanced Ultra-light Aeroplanes which states:

    An advanced ultra-light aeroplane is an aeroplane which:

    • Is propeller driven;
    • Is designed to carry a maximum of two persons, including the pilot;
    • Has a maximum take-off mass, MTOmax or WTOmax, of:
      1. 350 kg. (770 lb.) for a single place aeroplane, or
      2. 560.0 kg. (1232 lb.) for a two place aeroplane;
    • A maximum stalling speed in the landing configuration, VS0, at manufacturer's recommended maximum take-off mass (weight) not exceeding 72 km/h (20 m/s, 45 mph) (IAS); and
    • Is limited to non-aerobatic operations. Non-aerobatic operations include:
      1. manoeuvres incident to normal flying;
      2. stalls and spins (if approved for type);
      3. lazy eights, chandelles; and
      4. steep turns, in which the angle of bank is not more than 60°.

Helicopter-specific questions

  1. TSB findings in the aviation investigation report A18Q0016 state: “It is highly likely that the pilot of the helicopter as a result of .

    Reference: Air Transportation Safety Investigation Report A18Q0016 / 3.0 Findings

    Answer 57

    lost control; spatial disorientation

  2. Robinson Helicopter Company Safety Notice SN-44 states: “Carrying passengers is an for the pilot in command. Passengers have placed their trust entirely in the hands of the pilot and should be of the risks associated with the flight.

    Reference: Robinson Helicopter Company Safety Notice SN-44

    Answer 58

    additional responsibility; advised

Balloon-specific questions

  1. To launch a 120-foot-high balloon within a built-up area, the launch site shall have a diameter of no less than ft.

    Reference: CAR 602.13

    Answer 59

    150 (120 plus 25%)

Glider-specific questions

  1. When two gliders are in the same thermal, whose responsibility is collision avoidance?

    Reference: Soar and Learn to fly gliders Pg. 60

    Answer 60

    Both pilots’ responsibility

  2. If the tow pilot releases the tow rope below 300 ft. AGL, where should you normally plan to land?

    Reference: Soar & Learn to Fly Glider (2011), Page 75

    Answer 61

    Straight ahead

  3. If you lose sight of the tow-plane, or if you are diverging upwards rapidly above the normal tow position, you should .

    Reference: Glider Flying Handbook FAA-H-8083-13A Chapter 7-9

    Answer 62

    release the tow rope immediately

  4. What should you do when slack in the towline is excessive, or beyond pilot’s capability to safely recover? (Use Glider References)

    Reference: Glider Flying Handbook FAA-H-8083-13A Chapter 8-13

    Answer 63

    Immediately release from the aerotow.

Gyroplane-specific questions

  1. If a gyroplane took off with its centre of gravity aft of the longitudinal limit, the aircraft may not be able to establish level flight, even with maximum cyclic.

    Reference: Use gyroplane references

    Answer 64


  2. When descending in autorotation, if the rotor RPM decreases, what action other than rounding out your descent would increase your rotor RPM? .

    Reference: Use gyroplane references

    Answer 65




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