Part VII - Commercial Air Services

Canadian Aviation Regulations (CARs) 2019-1


Content last revised: 1998/03/23

(1) Pre-flight Phase

(a) Flight Planning and Equipment Examination

(i) Flight planning and equipment examinations are not mandatory when there are, in the training records, written examinations from initial or annual training for which the validity period has not expired.
(amended 1998/03/23; previous version)

(ii) Flight planning shall include a practical examination on the pilot's knowledge of standard operating procedures and the Aeroplane Flight Manual including performance charts, loading, weight and balance and Flight Manual Supplements.
(amended 1998/03/23; previous version)

(iii) The equipment examination shall show a practical knowledge of the airframe, engine, major components and systems including the normal, abnormal, and emergency operating procedures and limitations relating thereto.
(amended 1998/03/23; previous version)

(b) Aeroplane Inspection

(i) A pre-flight aeroplane inspection that includes:

(A) a visual inspection of the exterior and interior of the aeroplane, locating each item to be inspected and explaining the purpose of the inspection;

(B) the proper use of the pre-start, start and pre-taxi check lists; and

(C) checks of the appropriate radio communications, navigation and electronic equipment and selection of the appropriate communications and navigation frequencies prior to flight.

(2) Flight Phase

(a) Taxiing

(i) taxiing procedures;

(ii) a taxiing check including:

(A) the use of the taxiing check list; and

(B) taxiing in compliance with clearances and instructions issued by the appropriate air traffic control unit or by the person conducting the pilot proficiency check;

(C) where a second-in-command is undergoing the pilot proficiency check, the taxiing check outlined above to the extent practicable from the second-in-command position.

(b) Engine Checks

Engine checks shall be conducted as appropriate to the aeroplane type.

(c) Take-off

(i) One normal take-off to be performed in accordance with the Airplane Flight Manual or where the aeroplane is a turbo-jet, a noise abatement take-off performed in accordance with the Airplane Flight Manual (where applicable) and the Canada Air Pilot.

(ii) An instrument take-off performed in the same manner as the normal take-off except that instrument flight rules are simulated at or before reaching an altitude of 200 feet above the airport elevation.

(iii) Where practicable under existing meteorological, airport or airport traffic conditions, one crosswind take-off performed in accordance with the aeroplane operating manual where applicable;


Any or all of the above takeoffs may be combined.

(iv) a simulated engine failure after take-off (at a safe altitude and airspeed) appropriate to the aeroplane type under the prevailing conditions.
(amended 1998/03/23; previous version)

(v) a rejected take-off explained by the candidate prior to the flight.

(d) Instrument Procedures

Instrument procedures shall consist of IFR pre-flight preparation, departure and enroute procedures, terminal procedures and system malfunction:

(i) an area departure and an area arrival procedure shall be performed where the pilot:

(A) adheres to actual or simulated air traffic control clearances and instructions; and

(B) properly uses the available navigation facilities;

(ii) a holding procedure;

(iii) at least two instrument approaches performed in accordance with procedures and limitations in the Canada Air Pilot or the equivalent foreign publication, or approved company approach procedure for the approach facility used. Where practicable one of the approaches shall be a precision approach and one a non- precision approach;

(iv) a circling approach, where the air operator is authorized for circling minima below ceiling 1000 feet and 3 miles ground visibility, except where local conditions beyond the control of the pilot prevent a circling approach from being performed.

(e) In Flight Manoeuvres

(i) at least one steep turn in each direction with a bank angle of 45° and a change in heading of at least 180° but not more than 360°;

(ii) Recoveries from Impending or Full Stalls

For the purpose of this manoeuvre the required recovery from a stall is initiated when there is a perceptible buffet or other response to the initial stall entry. When performed in an aeroplane the approach to stalls shall be conducted at an altitude of at least 5000 feet AGL, and if conducted above cloud at an altitude of at least 2000 feet above the cloud tops.

The following recoveries from impending or full stalls are required during initial and upgrade PPC's:

(A) one in the take-off configuration, except where a zero-flap take-off configuration is normally used in that model and type of aeroplane;

(B) one in a clean configuration; and

(C) one in a landing configuration;

One of the recoveries from impending or full stall may be performed while in a turn with a bank angle of between 15° and 30°;

(f) Landings and Approaches to Landings

(i) one normal landing which shall, where practicable, be conducted without external or internal glideslope information;

(ii) one landing from an instrument approach, and where prevailing conditions prevent an actual landing, an approach to a point where a landing could have been made;

(iii) one cross wind landing where practicable under existing meteorological, airport and airport traffic conditions;

(iv) one landing and manoeuvring to that landing with a simulated failure of 50 percent of the available engines which shall be on one side of the aeroplane for the pilot-in-command and on outboard engine only for other than the pilot-in-command. Where the aeroplane type is a three engine aeroplane, the loss of power shall be an outboard engine and the centre engine for the pilot-in-command and on outboard engine for other than the pilot-in-command. For three- and four-engined aeroplanes the pilot-in-command is required to perform a two-engine inoperative procedure during initial qualification check and annually thereafter;

(v) one landing under simulated circling approach conditions except that where prevailing conditions prevent a landing, an approach to a point where a landing could have been made;


Any of the landings and approaches to landings specified in this section may be combined. A minimum of two landings are required.

(g) Normal Procedures

The crew shall demonstrate use of as many of the air operator's approved Standard Operating Procedures, and normal procedures as are necessary to confirm that the crew has the knowledge and ability to properly use installed equipment, (auto-pilot and hand flown manoeuvres as appropriate).

(h) Abnormal and Emergency Procedures

(i) The crew shall demonstrate use of as many of the air operator's approved Standard Operating Procedures and abnormal and emergency procedures for as many of the emergency situations as is necessary to confirm that the crew has an adequate knowledge and ability to perform these procedures;

(ii) System malfunctions shall consist of a selection adequate to determine that the crew has satisfactory knowledge and ability to safely handle malfunctions;

(iii) at least two simulated engine failures any time during the check

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