Standard 322 - Airports

Canadian Aviation Regulations (CARs) 2019-1

Content last revised: 2006/05/05

Table of contents

(amended 2006/05/05; no previous version)

322.302 Application

  1. The wildlife hazards referred to in paragraph 302.302(1)(e), subsection 302.304(3), subsection 302.305(6) and paragraph 302.306(a) of the Canadian Aviation Regulations include, in the following descending order of priority with respect to risk, the following hazards:
    1. deer;
    2. geese;
    3. gulls;
    4. hawks;
    5. ducks;
    6. coyotes;
    7. owls;
    8. rock doves and pigeons;
    9. bald and golden eagles;
    10. sandhill cranes;
    11. sparrows and snow buntings;
    12. shorebirds;
    13. blackbirds and starlings;
    14. crows and ravens;
    15. swallows;
    16. mourning doves;
    17. herons;
    18. turkey vultures;
    19. American kestrels;
    20. wild turkeys; and
    21. cormorants.
  2. The list of wildlife hazards referred to subsection (1) is not intended to be exhaustive.

Information note:

The above list ranks wildlife hazards in descending order from the most hazardous to the least hazardous with respect to risk and as such, identifies the hazards that are of primary concern for the operator. All hazards contained in this list have the potential to cause an incident outlined in paragraphs 302.302(1)(d) and 302.305(6)(b) of the Canadian Aviation Regulations.

322.303 - Reserved

322.304 Risk Analysis

  1. The following constitutes the information to be collected by the operator of an airport pursuant to subsection 302.304(1) of the Canadian Aviation Regulations:
    1. wildlife strike data;

      Information note:

      When reporting a wildlife strike, the Transport Canada form titled Bird/Wildlife Strike Report bearing the number #51-0272 may be used. Any information that the operator of an airport has that is outlined on that form should be included.

    2. aircraft movement statistics;
    3. aircraft types; and
    4. ecological studies and wildlife inventories.

Information note:

An Airport Wildlife Management Plan template may be used to assist operators with the layout of risk assessments and management plans. This document, entitled Airport Wildlife Management Plan Template (2004), can be accessed on-line at Template for the Development of an Airport Wildlife Management Plan, or can be obtained by writing to Transport Canada, Aerodrome and Air Navigation Branch, Wildlife Control Specialists, 330 Sparks Street, Place de Ville, Tower C, Ottawa Ontario, K1A 0N8.

322.305 Airport Wildlife Management Plan

(1) Pursuant to section 302.305 of the Canadian Aviation Regulations, the operator shall, in developing an airport wildlife management plan, use for guidance the following documents, as appropriate:

  1. Land Use In The Vicinity of Airports (TP1247),
  2. Wildlife Control Procedures Manual (TP11500),
  3. Evaluation of the Efficacy of Various Deer Exclusion Devices and Deterrent Techniques for use at Airports,
  4. Sharing the Skies-An Aviation Industry Guide to the Management of Wildlife Hazards (TP 13549), and
  5. Evaluation of the Efficacy of Products and Techniques for Airport Bird Control and

Information note:

The documents listed in paragraph (a) can be accessed on-line at Template for the Development of an Airport Wildlife Management Plan, or can be obtained by writing to Transport Canada, Aerodrome and Air Navigation Branch, Wildlife Control Specialists, 330 Sparks Street, Place de Ville, Tower C, Ottawa Ontario K1A 0N8.

(2) Pursuant to subsection 302.305 of the Canadian Aviation Regulations, the operator shall submit the airport wildlife management plan in the form of a manual and in duplicate to the Minister.

322.306 Content of Airport Wildlife Management Plan

Pursuant to paragraph 302.306(c) of the Canadian Aviation Regulations, the requirements that shall be contained in an airport wildlife management plan are:

  1. the acquisition of the appropriate firearm certificates and permits;
  2. the acquisition of wildlife control permits from federal, provincial, and local agencies;
  3. the identification of the species of any wildlife struck by aircraft;

    Information note:

    In order to correctly identify the species of wildlife struck by aircraft as outlined in paragraph (c), place the feathers and other material in a clean plastic zip-lock bag, and send to: Feather Lab, Smithsonian Institution, Division of Birds, NHB MRC 116, PO Box 37012, Washington, D.C. 20013-7012.

  4. the regular maintenance of wildlife management logs indicating management activities, environmental changes; wildlife interactions and animal remains identified by species; and
  5. the evaluation of habitats, land uses and food sources, located at or near the airport, that might attract wildlife which may affect the safe operation of the airport including, if needed, arrangements for assessments, studies and monitoring.

322.307 Training

Pursuant to section 302.307 of the Canadian Aviation Regulations, the following constitutes the matters in which the operator shall provide training to persons having duties in respect of the airport wildlife management plan:

  1. nature and extent of the wildlife management problem;
  2. regulations, standards and guidance material related to airport wildlife management programs;
  3. bird ecology and biology;
  4. bird identification, including the use of field guides;
  5. mammal ecology and biology;
  6. mammal identification, including the use of field guides;
  7. any matter covered in the Wildlife Control Procedures Manual (TP 11500);
  8. any matter covered in the Sharing the Skies-An Aviation Industry Guide to the Management of Wildlife Hazards document (TP 13549);
  9. rare and endangered species and species of special concern, including related regulations and policies;
  10. habitat management;
  11. off-airport land use issues;
  12. active wildlife control measures;
  13. wildlife removal techniques;
  14. firearm safety;
  15. wildlife management planning; and
  16. development of awareness programs.

Information note:

The airport operator can subcontract a third party to deliver the training as required pursuant to paragraph 302.307(1)(a) of the Canadian Aviation Regulations.

322.308 Communication and Alerting Procedure

Pursuant to section 302.308 of the Canadian Aviation Regulations, the communication and alerting procedure to be used in order to alert pilots as soon as possible of the wildlife hazards at the airport and associated risks may include:

  1. where the airport has air traffic services (ATS), bilateral radio communications or broadcast of airport advisories;
  2. if an immediate alert is required, direct radio contact can be used through such means as a community airport radio station or universal communications (UNICOM); or
  3. publication of a NOTAM in respect of the airport, whether in combination or not with the procedure referred to in paragraph (a) or (b).

Standards not in force

– related to SOR/2019-118 – new division IV

Division IV – Airport Winter Maintenance
(effective 2020/05/15)

Foreword

The objectives of airport winter maintenance planning are to minimize the effects of winter conditions and to establish requirements and procedures pursuant to the Canadian Aviation Regulations to prevent or eliminate hazardous conditions in order to maintain safe aircraft operations.

322.401 Interpretation

In this Division,

“cleared width” means the narrowest portion of the runway width that has been cleared of loose contaminants; (largeur dégagée)

“compacted snow” means snow that has been compacted into a solid mass such that aeroplane tires, at operating pressures and loadings, will run on the surface without significant further compaction or rutting of the surface; (neige durcie)

“dry” means a surface condition that is free of visible moisture, and has no observed contaminants; (sèche)

“frost” means ice crystals formed from airborne moisture on a surface whose temperature is below freezing. Frost differs from ice in that the frost crystals grow independently and therefore have a more granular texture; (givre)

Information note:

Below freezing refers to air temperature equal to or less than the freezing point of water (0 degree Celsius).

“percent coverage of contaminant” means the estimated amount of contaminant present on the surface of the runway and reported as a percentage (%) of the assessed surface; (pourcentage de couverture de contaminant)

Information note:

For example if a runway is totally covered with 0.5 inches of a contaminant such as dry snow, it is reported as 100% 0.5 inches dry snow. If half of the runway is covered with 0.5 inches of dry snow and half of the runway is dry, it is reported as: 50% 0.5 inches dry snow.

“Runway Surface Condition” or “RSC” means the portion of the AMSCR which reports the surface condition of the runway; (état de la surface de la piste ou RSC)

“significant change” means, with respect to runway surface condition includes but is not limited to: changes in type of contaminant, such as from dry snow to wet snow; measurable changes in depth of contaminant; following the application or removal of sand or chemicals; following snow removal or sweeping; changes in conditions caused by rapid increases or decreases in temperature; (changement significatif)

“standing water” means water of depth greater than 3 mm (1/8 inch); (eau stagnante)

“wet” means a surface condition where there is any visible dampness or water up to and including 3 mm (1/8 inch) deep; (mouillée)

“wet ice” means ice with water on top of it or ice that is melting; (glace mouillée)

“windrow” means a ridge of material, such as snow or gravel, created by airside maintenance equipment. (andain)

[322.402 to 322.410 reserved]

322.411 Content

  • (1) The winter maintenance operations for each priority area shall cover:
    • (a) for a priority 1 area,
      • (i) the full length of the primary runway,
      • (ii) the width of the primary runway required to support the operational requirement of the aircraft movements at the airport during a storm,
      • (iii) taxiways, including entrance and exit access areas, to accommodate traffic to and from the primary runway,
      • (iv) de-icing pads or areas, including entrance and exit access to accommodate traffic to the primary runway and from the apron,
      • (v) apron areas necessary to accommodate aircraft traffic, passengers and cargo,
      • (vi) access roads, groundside and airside, to accommodate the movement of emergency vehicles to the runway, taxiways and apron areas referred to in this paragraph,
      • (vii) visibility of lights installed as visual aids,
      • (viii) visibility and legibility of signs, and
      • (ix) the areas adjacent to the approach aids, including glide path site, that require the removal of snow in order to maintain the signal integrity of the approach aid and as agreed to by the airport operator and owner/operator of the approach aid;
    • (b) for a priority 2 area,
      • (i) the full length of one or more secondary runway,
      • (ii) the width of one or more secondary runways required to support the aircraft operations at the airport during inclement weather,
      • (iii) taxiways, including entrance and exit access areas, to accommodate traffic to and from a secondary runway,
      • (iv) visibility of lights installed as visual aids,
      • (v) visibility and legibility of signs, and
    • (c) for a priority 3 area,
      • (i) pre-threshold areas,
      • (ii) in the case of remaining areas,
        • (A) runway and taxiway shoulder areas,
        • (B) apron shoulder areas,
        • (C) airside service roads, including access roads to approaches, emergency vehicle and personnel gates,
        • (D) other movement areas identified in the airport’s winter maintenance plan, and
        • (E) remaining airside signage and lights.
  • (2) The operator of an airport shall set out communication procedures in the winter maintenance plan to:
    • (a) describe the link between the airport operator and those assigned winter maintenance duties, with the following ground station:
      • (i) the air traffic service unit,
      • (ii) community aerodrome radio station (CARS),
      • (iii) universal communications (UNICOM), or
      • (iv) if no ground station is provided at the airport, the airport traffic frequency (ATF);
    • (b) identify the applicable radio frequencies and describe their use;
    • (c) ensure a standard terminology is established to transmit information;
    • (d) immediately forward Canadian Runway Friction Index (CRFI) readings of 0.40 or less to the ground station referred to in paragraph (a); and
    • (e) where the consultation required by paragraph 302.410(1)(a) of the Canadian Aviation Regulations has determined that a higher value of CRFI than in paragraph (d) is desired by the air operators to be reported, that higher CRFI value will be immediately forwarded to the ground station referred to in paragraph (a).

[322.412 reserved]

322.413 Snow Accumulation on or Adjacent Threshold Areas

The airport operator shall not permit snow to accumulate in a manner that interferes with the operation of aeroplanes, in the case of pre-threshold areas

  • (a) Width – the width of the runway plus the profile outlined in Diagram I;
  • (b) Length – the distance from the end of the runway established in accordance with Diagram II and as follows:
    • (i) 30 m for non-instrument runways less than 800 m in length, and
    • (ii) 60 m for all other runways, and
  • (c) Slope – the height of snow, ice or any other object not to exceed a plane having an upward slope established in accordance with Diagram II and as follows:
Runway length (m) Maximum Snow Accumulation Slope (%)
less than 1200 2.0
1200 to 1799 1.5
1800 and greater 1.25

322.414 Snow Accumulation Adjacent to Runways or Taxiways

The airport operator shall not permit snow to accumulate in a manner that interferes with the operation of aeroplanes, in the case of runway and taxiway shoulder areas in accordance with Diagram I.

322.415 Ice Control Chemicals and Sand

  • (1) The operator of an airport shall only use, on movement areas, ice control chemicals that:
    • (a) have properties meeting the most current applicable Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) Aerospace Materials Specifications; or
    • (b) consist of the product commonly known as Urea.

    Information note:

    The manufacturer or supplier of ice control chemicals should provide to the operator information pertaining to the environmental impact of applying the chemicals.

  • (2) The operator of an airport shall only use sand for airport movement areas that meet the following criteria:
    • (a) be an abrasive material for airside ice control consisting of either crushed angular mineral aggregate or natural sand;
    • (b) be free from chlorides and corrosive materials, clays, debris, cementation, organic matter and other non-friction material;
    • (c) not be softer than and including 3.5 up to and including 7 on the Mohs hardness scale; and
    • (d) be of a granular size that falls within the following parameters:
    Sieve Size (U.S. Standard) Percent Passing by Weight (%)
    No. 4 (4.75 mm) 100
    No. 80 (0.180 mm) 0 to 2

    Information note:

    To promote visual awareness and absorption of solar heat, it is preferable to use abrasive material that is dark in colour.

322.416 Friction Measurement

  • (1) To determine a CRFI, the operator of the airport shall calculate the rate of deceleration using a decelerometer.
  • (2) The operator of an airport shall provide a CRFI:
    • (a) if the area within 10 m of either side of centreline, for any one-third section of the length of the runway, of the runway, has more than 25% of its surface contaminated; and
    • (b) only with respect to the following runway surface conditions:
      • (i) ice,
      • (ii) wet ice consisting of a thin film of water on ice,
      • (iii) compacted snow,
      • (iv) slush on ice,
      • (v) dry snow not exceeding 2.5 cm (1 inch) in depth,
      • (vi) deicing chemical solution or sand on ice, or
      • (vii) frost.
  • (3) Pursuant to subsection 302.416(1) of the Canadian Aviation Regulations, the operator of an airport shall use a decelerometer to obtain measurements of the rate of deceleration in accordance with the following requirements:
    • (a) at intervals not greater than 300 m within 10 m and on both sides of the runway centreline at that distance from the centreline where the majority of aeroplane operations take place; or,
    • (b) using the alternating side method in accordance with the following criteria:
      • (i) for operational purposes the alternating side method shall only be conducted when the contaminated runway surface conditions are uniform on both sides of the runway centreline and when it has been demonstrated by means of the comparative tests referred to in subparagraph (vi) that the alternating side method results are the same as those obtained, within a tolerance of + or - 0.04, using the standard method referred to in paragraph (a),
      • (ii) the alternating side method may only be used on runways exhibiting no patchy surface conditions,
      • (iii) decelerometer readings shall be obtained at intervals not greater than 300 m measured along the full length of the runway,
      • (iv) if a decelerometer reading is cancelled or rejected, the friction reading at the cancellation or rejection spot shall be retaken to maintain a reading interval not greater than 300 m,
      • (v) as the vehicle is traversing diagonally from one side of the runway to the other, the driver shall ensure that the vehicle is aligned parallel to the runway centre-line prior to bringing the vehicle to a four-wheel lock-up and that no diagonal or lateral forces are acting on the decelerometer when a reading is taken,
      • (vi) the operator of an airport shall perform and document a minimum of one set of comparative tests utilizing both methods for each type of winter contaminated surface conditions under which the alternating side method will be used,
      • (vii) the documentation established by the operator of an airport under subparagraph (vi) shall include:
        • (A) the date and time of the test,
        • (B) the CRFI test results from both methods, and
        • (C) the surface condition, temperature, type of equipment, vehicle identification and the technique utilized for each test,
      • (viii) the documentation referred to in subparagraph (vi) shall be included in the airport winter maintenance plan.
  • (4) Pursuant to subsection 302.416(1) of the Canadian Aviation Regulations, the operator of an airport shall report CRFI in accordance with the following requirements:
    • (a) For runways greater than or equal to 1829 m in length:
      • (i) the measurements of the rate of deceleration taken in accordance with subsection (2), for each third of the runway length, shall be averaged to obtain a CRFI reading for each third of the runway length,
      • (ii) CRFI readings shall be reported for each third of the runway length,
      • (iii) the runway thirds shall be referred to in the direction of the runway end in use:
        • (A) Touchdown,
        • (B) Midpoint, and
        • (C) Rollout;

          Note: For example: for runway 07, CRFI readings would be reported as: CRFI value/CRFI value/CRFI value (touchdown /midpoint/rollout).

    • (b) For runways less than 1829 m in length:
      • (i) report in accordance with paragraph (a), or
      • (ii) the measurements of the rate of deceleration taken in accordance with subsection (2), shall be averaged, and
      • (iii) the average reading obtained under subparagraph (i) shall be reported as the CRFI reading for the runway;
    • (c) if significant patches of contaminants cause lower readings than the average, their distance from the threshold of one end of the runway shall be reported in the remarks section of the AMSCR.
  • (5) Pursuant to paragraph 302.416(1)(c) of the Canadian Aviation Regulations, the operator of an airport shall maintain the accuracy of the friction measurement equipment as follows:
    • (a) the operator of an airport shall check the calibration of each instrument prior to the commencement of each winter season; and
    • (b) the operator of an airport shall do the calibration of each instrument in accordance with the manufacturer’s recommendation at the time of purchase.
  • (6) Pursuant to subsection 302.416(1) of the Canadian Aviation Regulations, the operator of an airport shall only use vehicles that meet the following criteria:
    • (a) the friction test instrument used to establish the CRFI shall be mounted on the following vehicle types only:
      • (i) sedans, station wagons, intermediate or full-size automobiles,
      • (ii) utility and passenger/cargo pick-up trucks, or
      • (iii) mini-vans;
    • (b) the vehicle’s four-wheel traction or anti-lock braking system (ABS), if any, shall be disengaged while friction measurements are being taken;
    • (c) in order to consistently provide accurate decelerometer readings, the operator of an airport shall only use vehicles that are equipped as follows:
      • (i) all four tires are of the same type of construction,
      • (ii) both front tires have matching tread configurations and both rear tires shall have matching tread configurations,
      • (iii) tires are replaced when the tread wear exceeds 75%,
      • (iv) wear on all four tires are the same,
      • (v) tires are inflated to the tire manufacturer’s specification,
      • (vi) shock absorbers are of heavy duty type and in good condition,
      • (vii) brakes are tested frequently to ensure operation in accordance with manufacturer’s specifications, and
      • (viii) all four tires are non-studded tires.

322.417 Movement Area Inspections and Reports

  • (1) When conducting movement area inspections and reporting the surface conditions, the operator of an airport shall meet the following requirements:
    • (a) conduct daily inspections of the movement areas at the commencement and as necessary to identify significant changes in runway surface conditions until the end of AMSCR hours published in the Canada Flight Supplement;
    • (b) when contaminants are present on a movement area, make available the AMSCR during the published AMSCR hours as follows:
      • (i) at the commencement of published AMSCR hours,
      • (ii) a minimum of once every eight hours thereafter,
      • (iii) when a significant change in a runway surface condition occurs,
      • (iv) following every accident or incident in which winter conditions may have been a factor, and
      • (v) whenever the cleared width of the runway falls below full width;
    • (c) use the form “Airport Movement Surface Condition Report & Canadian Runway Friction Index” (hereinafter the form) or an electronic format required by the aeronautical information services provider that includes all of the elements of an AMSCR;
    • (d) provide an AMSCR with the Runway Surface Condition (RSC) data section completed for each CRFI measurement provided;
    • (e) identify, in the remarks column of the form or the remark section of the approved electronic format, the time of day that this report is valid to and that this report is the final report for the period; and
    • (f) the validity period of an AMSCR shall not exceed the published operating hours for the airport, unless the surface conditions are being monitored.

      Information note:

      • (i) The “Remarks” column on the form is used to record maintenance activities (plowing, sweeping, etc.); or any unusual contamination conditions, such as a specific contaminant location that cannot otherwise be recorded in other specific AMSCR columns.
      • (ii) The approximate maximum height and width and the location of windrows within the manoeuvring area is specified in the “Remarks” column of the form.
  • (2) In addition to the requirement to provide information concerning the availability and provision of CRFI and AMSCR pursuant to section 302.417 of the Canadian Aviation Regulations, the operator of an airport may provide information concerning the preparation and distribution of AMSCR and CRFI outside the published hours.
  • (3) The operator of an airport who provides the information outside the hours as indicated in subsection (2) shall do so in accordance with section 302.417 of the Canadian Aviation Regulations and with the following requirements:
    • (a) arrangements for AMSCR and CRFI outside those hours shall be through the airport operator and shall be annotated as O/T (other times), and
    • (b) prior notice requirements (PNR) and contact information shall also be published.

    Information note:

    An example of paragraph (a) and (b) would read: Opr RCR/CRFI avbl 10-24Z O/T, x hours PNR, contact Opr (telephone #).

  • (4) The following terminology must be used when describing runway surface conditions in an AMSCR:
    • (a) compacted snow;
    • (b) dry;
    • (c) dry snow;
    • (d) dry snow on top of compacted snow;
    • (e) dry snow on top of ice;
    • (f) frost;
    • (g) ice;
    • (h) slippery when wet;
    • (i) slush;
    • (j) slush on top of ice;
    • (k) standing water;
    • (l) water on top of compacted snow;
    • (m) wet;
    • (n) wet ice;
    • (o) wet snow;
    • (p) wet snow on top of compacted snow;
    • (q) wet snow on top of ice;
    • (r) chemically treated; and
    • (s) loose sand.

322.418 Training

The following constitutes the matters in which the operator of an airport shall provide training to persons having duties under the operator’s airport winter maintenance plan:

  • (a) the safe use of vehicles;
  • (b) radio communication;
  • (c) airport layout;
  • (d) the inspection, storage and application of airside ice control chemicals and sand;
  • (e) AMSCR procedures, including the following matters:
    • (i) observing,
    • (ii) recording,
    • (iii) procedures for forwarding reports to the aeronautical information services provider, and
    • (iv) friction testing; and
  • (f) snow and ice control for airside lighting, markers and signage.
Diagram I - Maximum height of snow profile beyond runway and taxiway edge lights
Image Description - Diagram 1: Depiction of maximum height of snow profile beyond runway and taxiway edge lights based on aircraft wingspan groupings.

The acceptable snow slope profiles beyond the runway or taxiway edge lights, commencing at the location and elevation of the lights are as follows:

For AGN groups V and VI – 1 metre of snow depth at a distance of 15 metres from the lights, 1.5 metres at 20 metres and 3 metres at 25 metres.

For AGN groups III A/B and IV – 1 metres snow depth at a distance of 10 metres from the lights, 1.5 metres at 15 metres and 3 metres at 20 metres.

For AGN groups I and II – 0.5 metres snow depth at a distance of 5 metres from the lights, 1.5 metres at 10 metres and 3 metres at 15 metres.

For the purposes of the these regulations, the Aircraft Group Numbers (AGN) are grouped by wingspan as follows;

AGN I less than 14.94 metres, AGN II 14.94 metres up to but not including 24.10 metres, AGN III A/B 24.10 metres up to but not including 36.00 metres, AGN IV 36.00 metres up to but not including 52.12 metres, AGN V 52.12 metres up to but not including 65.23 metres, and AGN VI 65.23 metres up to but not including 79.86 metres.

Diagram II - Maximum snow accumulation beyond runway end lights on the pre threshold area
Image Description - Diagram 2 – Depiction of maximum snow accumulation beyond runway end lights on the pre threshold area based on total runway length.

The acceptable snow slope profiles beyond the runway end lights, commencing at the location and elevation of the light are as follows:

For runway length of 1800 metres and greater 1.25 percent, 1200 metres to 1799 metres 1.5 percent, and less than 1200 metres 2.0 percent.

The above slope profiles are applicable over a distance of 30 metres for non-instrument runways less than 800 metres in length, and 60 metres for all other runways.

Date modified: