Spin Training

Introduction

Flight instructors must provide spin training as outlined in Exercise 13 of the Flight Instructor Guide (TP 975) and the Flight Training Manual. Emphasize that techniques and procedures for each aircraft may differ and that pilots should be aware of the flight characteristics of each aircraft flown.

A demonstration of the full spin, performed by the student, is required during private pilot training. Students should be competent in recovery from a full spin while avoiding a secondary stall, excessive airspeed, or excessive altitude loss.

Instructor and Student Practice

  1. Spin training must be accomplished in an aircraft that is approved for spins. Before practicing intentional spins, the AFM or POH must be consulted for the proper entry and recovery techniques. Pilots should also be knowledgeable of any additional information on spinning provided by the manufacturer.

  2. Spin avoidance, incipient spins, and actual spin entry, spin, and spin recovery techniques should be practised from an altitude recommended by the aircraft manufacturer or at an altitude that will enable complete recovery by 2,000 feet AGL, whichever is greater. The entry altitude is not governed by regulation, but pilots must make this determination safely with the full knowledge of the aircraft capabilities under existing conditions of aircraft configuration, pilot skill and meteorological and human factors.

  3. Observe the airspeed indicator during the spin recovery to ensure that it does not exceed the red line (Vne).

  4. Follow the recovery procedures recommended by the manufacturer in the AFM or POH. In the absence of manufacturer's recommendations, spin recovery techniques for most aircraft consist of
  1. retarding power to idle,

  2. neutralizing the ailerons,

  3. applying opposite rudder to the direction of rotation,

  4. applying positive forward-elevator movement to break the stall

  5. neutralizing the rudder as the spinning stops,

  6. and returning to level flight.

The spin characteristics of aircraft that are approved for spins will vary between aircraft types and even between different aircraft of the same type. One aircraft may enter and recover from a spin promptly while another aircraft of the same type may enter a spin with difficulty or require a more aggressive recovery technique. This is due to various factors such as the weight and balance of the aircraft and the rigging of the controls and wings. For this reason caution should be exercised when practising spins in a variety of aircraft.

Inadvertent Spiral

Aircraft that are difficult to spin can quickly build up speed during a failed spin entry. It is important for students to recognize this entry to a spiral dive and immediately apply the correct spiral dive recovery procedure.

Scenarios

Many of the scenarios described in the previous pages can be used in developing a scenario for a full spin. The differences are in the time to initiate recovery. Although some aircraft types are difficult to spin and require special techniques, forcing an aircraft into a spin by aggressive control inputs is not as effective for teaching as a well executed simulation.

If you are setting a scenario with the intention of entering a spin, follow the manufacturer's recommendations with regards to prohibition of intentional spins with flaps extended.

Date modified: