Chapter 4 - ETOPS Maintenance and Reliability Requirements
- 4.1 GENERAL
- 4.2 MAINTENANCE CONTROL SYSTEM
- 4.3 MCM REQUIREMENTS FOR ETOPS
- 4.4 OIL CONSUMPTION
- 4.5 ENGINE CONDITION AND TREND MONITORING (ECTM)
- 4.6 VERIFICATION PROGRAM
- 4.7 RELIABILITY PROGRAM
- 4.8 CONTRACTED MAINTENANCE AND RELIABILITY
- 4.9 PROPULSION SYSTEM MONITORING
- 4.10 TECHNICAL TRAINING
- 4.11 ETOPS PARTS CONTROL
4.1.1 All personnel involved must be made aware of the special nature of ETOPS and have the knowledge, skills and ability to accomplish the requirements of the program. Therefore, the maintenance control system must contain the standards, guidance and direction necessary to support the intended operation of ETOPS aeroplane.
4.1.2 The Principal Maintenance Inspector (PMI) having jurisdiction over the air operator must assess over a period of not less than 3 months the maintenance control system as being suitable to support the proposed ETOPS operation before the operational approval for ETOPS can be granted.
4.2.1 The maintenance control system required by Subpart VI of Part VII of the Canadian Aviation Regulations that is being considered for ETOPS approval, must be reviewed in conjunction with the aeroplane maintenance schedule, to ensure that it provides an adequate basis for development and inclusion of specific ETOPS maintenance requirements as defined in the Configuration, Maintenance and Procedures (CMP) document for the airframe-engine combination and any applicable Supplemental instructions for continued airworthiness (ICA) that affects ETOPS requirements. The maintenance control system must include procedures to ensure that an aeroplane is not dispatched for an ETOPS flight following maintenance actions that affect multiple similar elements in any system determined to be an ETOPS significant system (e.g. fuel control change on both engines) and ensure that:
a) The ETOPS related tasks must be identified on the routine work forms and related instructions;
b) The ETOPS related procedures, such as involvement of centralized maintenance control or technical dispatch, must be clearly defined in the maintenance control system, including identification of the management position that is responsible for those procedures;
c) An ETOPS service check must be developed and used to verify that the status of the aeroplane and certain significant items are acceptable. Prior to every ETOPS flight (actual or simulated, as applicable), an ETOPS authorized person, accomplishes this check. Authorization may be provided to suitably trained persons to perform this check under the "elementary work" provision of CAR 571 and CAR 605, provided the check is not incorporated into the aeroplane maintenance schedule, and does not include any item that requires a maintenance release; and
d) The Quality Assurance program must encompass the review of the aeroplane technical record. This review is to ensure proper MEL procedures, defect rectification and control procedures, deferred items, maintenance checks have been performed properly and system verification procedures are effective.
4.3.1 The Maintenance Control Manual (MCM) must be amended to address ETOPS operations. The manual must include, either directly or by reference to incorporated documents, the requirements described in Chapter 4 of this manual.
4.3.2 All ETOPS requirements, including supportive program procedures, duties and responsibilities, must be identified as being related to ETOPS. The amended manual must be submitted to the PMI for approval with sufficient lead-time prior to the scheduled commencement of ETOPS Operations of the particular aeroplane type, model and /or variant. (airframe-engine combination).
4.4.1 The oil consumption program should reflect the type certificate holder's recommendations and be sensitive to oil consumption trends. The dispatch procedures for ETOPS segments are to take into account peak consumption and current running average consumption, including consumption on the immediately preceeding segments. If oil analysis is meaningful to this make and model, it must be included in the program. If the APU is required for ETOPS operation, it must be included in the oil consumption program.
4.5.1 This program must describe the parameters to be monitored, method of data collection and corrective action process. The program should reflect the type certificate holder's instructions and industry practice. This monitoring is used to detect deterioration at an early stage to allow for corrective action before safe operation is affected. The program must ensure that engine limit margins are maintained so that a prolonged single-engine diversion may be conducted without exceeding approved engine limits (i.e. rotor speeds, exhaust gas temperatures) at all approved power levels and expected environmental conditions. Engine margins preserved through this program must also account for the effects of additional engine loading demands (e.g. anti-icing, electrical, etc.) which may be required during the single-engine flight phase associated with the diversion. Monitoring must be on a continual basis. It is necessary to demonstrate that the achieved reliability and performance is sufficiently high.
4.6.1 The MCM must describe verification procedures to ensure that the corrective action following an engine in-flight shutdown, an ETOPS significant system failure or adverse trend(s) for any prescribed event(s) is appropriate and effective. This may include a verification flight, or other methods. The description is to include a list of the affected systems and actions, together with the appropriate verification methods. The program must include but is not limited to the type certificate holder's instruction. A clear description of who must initiate verification actions and the section or group responsible for the determination of what action is necessary must be identified in the program. ETOPS significant systems or conditions requiring verification actions must be described in the MCM.
4.6.2 The MCM must also describe verification procedures to be applied following maintenance actions that affect multiple similar elements in any system determined to be an ETOPS significant system.
4.7.1 A reliability program that focuses on ETOPS significant systems must be established. If a reliability program already exists, it must be supplemented as applicable to take account of ETOPS. The program must be designed with early identification and prevention of ETOPS related significant event when operating ETOPS as the primary goal as well as ensuring that the minimum ETOPS reliability levels are maintained. The program must be event-oriented and incorporate reporting procedures for significant events and trends detrimental to ETOPS flights. This information must be readily available for use by the air operator and the PMI to help establish that the reliability level is adequate, and to assess the air operator's competence and capability to safely continue ETOPS Operations. An ETOPS reporting program must be established which ensures that the PMI is notified at least monthly, on the previous month's activities or more often if adverse trends reportable through this program are identified.
4.7.2 Procedures for the roll back of the ETOPS diversion time must be established and implemented if;
a) A significant event is identified on any flight, including non ETOPS flights, of the air operator's ETOPS approved aeroplane type affected; or
b) An adverse trend is identified through the reliability program.
The Maintenance Manager must have the authority to initiate roll back of the approved ETOPS diversion time.
4.7.3 Where reliability data indicate that the propulsion system "target criteria" per Appendix A of this document, Figure 1, are no longer being met, the PMI must be notified of the corrective measures taken. Where the "minimum criteria" are no longer being met, the air operator must roll back the ETOPS diversion time to that specified in Appendix A for the particular IFSD rate noted. An IFSD could be discounted pursuant to conditions such as:
a) The IFSD is not the result of any action or inaction from the part of the air operator;
b) The IFSD is not the result of any action or inaction from the part of the maintenance provider; or
c) The IFSD is the result of an operational incident such as a bird strike at low altitude.
When discounting of IFSD, the air operator, PMI and POI must have consensus. If required, the PMI is to consult with the Aircraft Certification Engineering Division for interpretation and/or guidance on a case-by-case basis.
4.7.4 Failure of an air operator to roll back the maximum diversion time when required constitutes grounds for removal of ETOPS authority.
4.7.5 The following events must be included in the reporting program:
a) In-flight shutdowns or flameouts;
b) Diversion or turn-back;
c) Uncommanded power changes or surges;
d) Inability to control the engine or obtain desired power; and
e) Significant events or adverse trends with ETOPS significant systems
4.7.6 THE REPORT MUST ALSO IDENTIFY THE FOLLOWING:
a) Aeroplane identification;
b) Engine identification (make and serial number);
c) Total time, cycles and time since last shop visit;
d) For systems, time since overhaul or last inspection of the defective unit;
e) Phase of flight; and
f) Corrective action.
4.8.1 Air operators who contract any part of their maintenance control system and/or reliability programs, necessary to support their ETOPS approval, to any other organization, remain responsible for ensuring that all elements of this program are addressed and continue to meet the applicable requirements.
4.8.2 For those air operators whose ETOPS approval is based on reliability levels established by other organizations, Transport Canada does not consider ETOPS approval privileges beyond those granted by the other organization's Civil Aviation Authority.
4.9.1 The assessment of propulsion systems reliability for the ETOPS fleet must be made available to the PMI (with supporting data) in accordance with an agreed upon frequency, to ensure that the approved maintenance control system continues to maintain a level of reliability necessary for ETOPS operation.
4.9.2 The assessment must include, as a minimum, engine hours flown in the period, in-flight shut down rate for all causes and engine removal rate, both on a 12 month moving average basis. Where the combined ETOPS fleet is part of a larger fleet of the same aircraft/engine combination, data from the air operator's total fleet is acceptable. However, the reporting requirements of Section 4.7 of this Chapter must still be observed for the ETOPS fleet.
4.9.3 Any adverse trend requires an immediate evaluation to be accomplished. TCCA must be advised of the result of the evaluation. The evaluation may result in corrective action or operational restrictions being applied.
4.10.1 The technical training must include an element that addresses the special nature of ETOPS. This training must be included as an integral part of the air operator's maintenance program. The goal of this element of the program is to ensure that all personnel who are assigned ETOPS responsibilities (including technical dispatch, parts control or any other ETOPS related function) are provided with the necessary training so that ETOPS tasks are properly accomplished. Qualified personnel are those that have completed the ETOPS training program and have satisfactorily performed ETOPS tasks under supervision, within the framework of the approved procedures for Personnel Authorization.
4.11.1 The parts control program must include procedures to ensure that appropriate parts are installed on ETOPS aircraft. The program must include means to verify that parts obtained through borrowing or pooling arrangements, conform to the applicable ETOPS configuration for the aeroplane concerned.