The following is a list of definitions applicable in the context of this manual only. Words, such as “Airport” may be found in other publications with a different definition.
AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL
The term Aircraft Flight Manual is defined in CAR 101.01, and is used in lieu of the terms “Airplane Flight Manual” and/or “Approved Flight Manual”.
For the purpose of ETOPS, an adequate airport means one at which the landing performance requirements at the expected landing weight can be met and which is expected to be available, if required, and which has the necessary facilities and services, such as air traffic services, lighting, communications, meteorological services, navigation aids, aeroplane rescue and fire-fighting services and at least one suitable instrument approach procedure which is usable by the aeroplane.
ETOPS ALTERNATE AIRPORT:
For the purpose of ETOPS, an ETOPS alternate airport means an adequate airport that is listed in the air operator’s company operations manual and that meets the applicable requirements of Section 3.4.6 of this manual.
BENIGN AREA OF OPERATION
An area that provides numerous adequate airports, a high level of reliability and availability of communication, navigation and ATC services and facilities, and where prevailing weather conditions are stable and generally do not approach extremes in temperature, wind, ceiling, and visibility. (The Caribbean Sea meets this criteria).
CONFIGURATION, MAINTENANCE AND PROCEDURES (CMP) STANDARDS
A document containing the minimum requirements for the aircraft configuration including any special inspections, maintenance tasks, hardware life limits and Master Minimum Equipment List (MMEL) constraints necessary to establish and maintain the suitability of an airframe-engine combination for ETOPS operations.
CRITICAL POINT (CP)
A “critical point” is the point along a route which is most critical from a fuel requirement point of view, from which an aeroplane can proceed toward the destination or initiate a diversion to another airport. (The CP is usually, but not always, the last ETP).
DEMANDING AREA OF OPERATION
An area that has one or more of the following characteristics:
(1) Prevailing weather conditions can approach extremes in winds, temperature, ceiling, and visibility for prolonged period of time;
(2) Few alternate airports;
(3) Due to remote or overwater area, a high level of reliability and availability of communications, navigation, and ATC services may not exist.
The basic engine assembly plus its essential accessories as supplied by the engine manufacturers.
A subjective decision required due to the complexity of an issue based upon a qualitative analysis of relevant data.
EQUAL TIME POINT (ETP)
An Equal Time Point is a point along the route which is located at the same flight time from two airports.
ETOPS SIGNIFICANT SYSTEM
ETOPS Significant Systems means the aeroplane propulsion system and any other aeroplane systems whose failure could adversely affect the safety of an ETOPS flight, or whose functioning is important to continued safe flight and landing during an aeroplane extended diversion
Each ETOPS significant system is either a Group 1 or Group 2 system
ETOPS Group 1 System:
(1) A system for which the fail-safe redundancy characteristics are directly linked to the number of engines;
(2) A system that may affect the proper functioning of the engines to the extent that it could result in an in-flight shutdown or uncommanded loss of thrust;
(3) A system which contributes significantly to the safety of an engine inoperative ETOPS diversion and is intended to provide additional redundancy to accommodate the system(s) lost by the inoperative engine. These include back-up systems such as an emergency generator or APU; or
(4) Any system essential to prolonged operation at engine inoperative altitudes including anti-icing systems for a twin engine aeroplane if single engine performance results in the aeroplane operating in the icing envelope.
ETOPS Group 2 System:
Group 2 System is an ETOPS significant system that is not a Group 1 system.
For the purpose of this document, ETOPS operations are those operations conducted with a twin-engine aeroplane over a specified route that contain a point further than 60 minutes flying time at the approved one-engine-inoperative cruise speed (under standard conditions in still air) from an adequate airport.
ETOPS AREA OF OPERATION
The area in which an air operator is authorized to conduct a flight under ETOPS regulations. It is defined by circles centered on the adequate airports, the radius of which is the allowed maximum diversion distance (maximum diversion distance equals approved maximum diversion time multiplied by the approved one-engine-inoperative cruise speed).
ETOPS ENTRY POINT (EEP)
The EEP is the first point on the aeroplane’s outbound route beyond which the aeroplane is no longer continuously within 60 minutes flying time at the approved one-engine-inoperative cruise speed (under standard conditions in still air) from an adequate airport.
ETOPS EXIT POINT (EXP)
The EXP is the first point on the aeroplane’s inbound route where the aeroplane is continuously within 60 minutes flying time at the approved one-engine-inoperative cruise speed (under standard conditions in still air) from an adequate airport.
The ETOPS segment starts at the EEP and ends at the EXP.
ETOPS SIGNIFICANT EVENT
An ETOPS significant event is any system malfunction, degradation or other in-flight event, which requires that the crew make a decision whether to turn back, divert or to continue under an increased level of alertness.
Fail-safe is the design methodology upon which Airworthiness Standards for Transport Category Aeroplanes are based. It requires that the effect of failures and combinations of failures to be considered in defining a safe design.
FUEL CONSUMPTION MONITORING PROGRAM
Is a program established by the air operator to monitor the aeroplane’s in-service deterioration in cruise fuel burn performance.
IN-FLIGHT SHUTDOWN (IFSD)
When an engine ceases to function in-flight and is shut down, for any reason (Ex: a flameout, internal failure, crew-initiated shut-off, foreign object ingestion, icing, etc.) or power reduction which results in an unacceptable
A system consisting of an engine and all ancillary components installed on the engine prior to installation on the aeroplane to provide and control power/thrust and for the extraction of energy.
A process is a series of steps or activities that are accomplished, in a consistent manner, to assure that a desired result is attained on an ongoing basis.
A process is considered to be proven when the following elements are developed and implemented:
(1) Definition and documentation of process elements.
(2) Definition of process related roles and responsibilities.
(3) Procedure for validation of process or process elements:
(i) Indications of process stability/reliability;
(ii) Parameters to validate process and monitor (measure) success;
(iii) Duration of necessary evaluation to validate process.
(4) Procedure for follow-up in-service monitoring to assure process remains reliable/stable.
SINGLE ENGINE CRUISE SPEED (OR ONE-ENGINE-INOPERATIVE CRUISE SPEED)
(1) The approved one-engine-inoperative cruise speed for the intended area of operation must be a speed, within the certified limits of the aeroplane, selected by the air operator and approved by Transport Canada Civil Aviation (TCCA).
(2) This speed must be used for:
(i) Establishing the area of ETOPS operations and any dispatch limitations;
(ii) Calculation of one-engine-inoperative fuel requirements under paragraph 3.4.5 (Fuel and Oil Supply) of this document; and
(iii) Establishing the level off altitude (net performance) data. This level off altitude (net performance) must clear any obstacles en route by margins as specified in applicable operating rules.
A system includes all elements of equipment necessary for the control and performance of a particular major function. It includes both the equipment specifically provided for the function in question and other basic equipment such as that required to supply power for the equipment operation.
(1) Airframe System – any system on the aeroplane that is not a propulsion system.
(2) Propulsion System – the aeroplane power plant installation including each component that: is necessary for propulsion, affects the control of the major propulsion units or affects the safety of the major propulsion units (Airworthiness Manual 525.901(a)).
UNACCEPTABLE THRUST LOSS
Total thrust loss or loss of thrust to an extent that would preclude continued controlled flight with the affected engine to an adequate airport, should the other engine fail.