Sections 11-21

Section 11: Ventilation

Question 50

On a vessel, an enclosed space that contains a source of gasoline vapour shall have, in accordance with the construction standards, a natural ventilation system designed to remove any accumulation of combustible vapours.

Sources of gasoline vapour include:

  1. a permanently installed gasoline engine;
  2. a portable gasoline fuel tank that ventilates into the space; or
  3. a non-metallic gasoline tank:
    1. with an aggregate permeability rate exceeding 42 grams of fuel loss in 24 hours per cubic centimetre (1.2 grams per cubic foot) of net compartment volume; or
    2. with a net compartment volume of less than 0.028 cubic metres (1 cubic foot), having a permeability rate exceeding 1.2 grams of fuel loss in 24 hours.

EXAMPLE OF VENTILATION OF ENCLOSED SPACES

If the source of gasoline vapour is in an open space, then the requirement to have a natural ventilation system does not apply. An open space has the following characteristics:

  1. at least 0.34 m2 (3.5 ft2) of area exposed to the atmosphere per cubic metre (35 ft3) of net space volume; and
  2. no long or narrow unvented spaces in which a flame front might propagate.

For additional details, see TP 1332 section 6.

Question 51

  • Blowers for powered ventilation may be installed separately or installed in the natural ventilation system.
  • Blowers shall be mounted as high as practicable above the bilge low point to prevent contact with bilge fluid.
  • Blower outlet fittings shall not have less effective area than blower intakes.
  • Blowers shall not be wired in the ignition circuit to run continuously, unless rated by the blower manufacturer for continuous operation.
  • Blower motors shall be of a sealed type or ignition protected and shall be suitable for installation in damp locations.
  • Blowers shall be designed for a minimum of four minutes continuous operation, more if required, to clear any space of combustible vapours.

Question 52

Neither mechanical nor natural ventilation is required to remove diesel fuel vapours.

Ventilating provisions and openings to the engine space shall provide for the supply of combustion air and shall accommodate the air requirements of each propulsion and auxiliary engine in that space. Refer to the manufacturer’s documentation to determine the air requirements of each engine in a space. The openings for providing the air requirements of propulsion and auxiliary engine may also function as means of providing natural ventilation to the space.

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Section 12: Fuel Systems

Question 53

With your vessel documentation there should be information to show the make and rating of the carburetor. The carburetor should be marked or stamped ABYC H-24 (American Boat and Yacht Council). You should check and make note of this information. The flame arrestor shall be suitably secured to the air intake with a flame tight connection and shall comply with and be marked SAE J-28, UL 111 or USCG CFR 46.182.415 – all are acceptable standards.

Question 54

Every fuel tank, including those encased in cellular plastic foam or fibre reinforced plastic, shall be so installed that all connections, accessories, and labels are accessible for inspection and maintenance. Note: A gasoline fuel tank shall not be made integral with the hull.

Question 55

Fuel lines shall not have unnecessary connections. Hoses used in the fuel tank fill system shall be secured to pipes (smooth pipes acceptable), spuds, or other fittings at each connection, by at least two (2) metallic clamps with nominal bandwidths of at least 12 millimetres (1/2 inches).

Every hose used in the fuel tank vent system or the fuel distribution and return line system shall be secured to a mating spud, pipe, or fitting that is formed or machined to provide serrations (at least 0.38 millimetres [0.15 inches] depth) or a bead. At least one corrosion resistant metallic clamp shall be used.

Question 56

Every letter and numeral on any fuel tank label shall be at least 1.5 millimetres (1/16 inch) in height and width and be of a contrasting colour to the basic colour of the label. Labels on fuel tanks shall contain the following information:

  • The type of fuel for which the tank is designed.
  • The manufacturer’s name or logo and address.
  • The month and year of manufacture or the lot number and year of manufacture.
  • The capacity of the tank in litres.
  • The standard to which the tank was constructed.
  • A statement that the tank was constructed in accordance with the requirements of the relevant standard.

Question 57, 58 & 59

All fuel hoses shall meet the requirements of SAE J1527, Type A1 or A2, and be permanently marked in capital letters and numerals at least 3 millimetres (0.12 inch) in height and width and at intervals not greater than 305 millimetres (12 inches) with the following information:

  • Type of hose
  • Manufacturer’s name or registered trademark.
  • Year of manufacture.
  • Hoses less than 305 millimetres (12 inches) in length may instead be tagged with the required marking.

Question 60

Fuel Tank Deck Fill Plates shall be permanently marked as follows:

  • GASOLINE, GAS, or with the ISO symbol for gasoline in GASOLINE systems; or
  • DIESEL, or with the ISO symbol for diesel in DIESEL systems.

Question 61

No person shall install or maintain a fuel tank or a fuel system on a vessel in a manner that permits or is likely to permit leakage of fuel or spillage of fuel into the hull.

Question 62

Self explanatory – answer yes or no.

Question 63

Manually operated valves shall be designed with positive stops in the open and closed positions and shall indicate their opened and closed positions.

Electrically operated shut-off valves shall be connected so that they will be energized in the open position when the engine ignition switch is on. A provision for manual operation shall be incorporated in the design.

“Readily accessible for operation from outside the compartment” may be achieved by a shut-off valve installed at the tank, close to, and directly below, a quick-acting access port in the deck through which the valve can be operated. The access port shall be clearly and permanently labelled.

Question 64

You can identify the potential ignition sources in your vessel by looking for possible sources of heat that could get hot enough to ignite. These sources of ignition could include:

  • Smokers’ materials (such as lighters and matches);
  • Open flames (such as candles);
  • Electrical, gas or oil-fired heaters (fixed or portable);
  • Hot processes (such as welding or grinding work);
  • Cooking equipment;
  • Engines or boilers;
  • Machinery;
  • Faulty or misused electrical equipment;
  • Lighting equipment (such as halogen lamps);
  • Hot surfaces and obstruction of equipment ventilation (such as office equipment);
  • Friction (such as from loose bearings or drive belts);
  • Static electricity; and/or
  • Metal impact (such as metal tools striking each other).

Question 65

Your fuel tank must provide for protection from leakage caused by shock, corrosion, abrasion or fire. The fuel tank shall meet the minimum test requirements for mechanical strength and fire resistance as detailed in American Boat and Yacht Council (ABYC) Standards H-24 Gasoline Fuel Systems, or ABYC Standards H-33 Diesel Fuel Systems.

Some acceptable recommended practices and standards that provide a level of safety at least equivalent for test requirements for mechanical strength and fire resistance or fuel tanks are United States Code of Federal Regulations, CFR33 183.510 or ISO 10088 – Small Craft – permanently installed fuel systems and fixed fuel tanks.

For your vessel, note and record all signage such as the one shown.

WARNING
AVOID SERIOUS INJURY OR DEATH FROM FIRE OR EXPLOSION RESULTING FROM LEAKING FUEL
Inspect system for leaks frequently
MISE EN GARDE
DANGER DE BLESSURE GRAVE OU DE MORT RÉSULTANT D’UNE EXPLOSION OU D’UN INCENDIE PROVOQUÉ PAR UNE FUITE DE CARBURANT
Inspecter le système régulièrement pour s’assurer qu’il n’y a aucune fuite

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Section 13: Machinery (Not applicable to vessels propelled by outboard motor engines)

Question 66

Exhaust gases contain carbon monoxide (CO), which can cause headaches, drowsiness, nausea, and lead to unconsciousness as the quantity inhaled is increased. Remember that in sufficient quantity, carbon monoxide can be fatal in an instant.

Exhaust pipe joints and clamps must be regularly checked for tightness and replacement of gaskets as required. It is very important to have exhaust manifolds, exhaust pipes, mufflers and tailpipes regularly checked and inspected for visible signs of corrosion or damage before an actual exhaust leak happens.

DRY EXHAUST SYSTEM

Questions 67, 68 & 69

Self explanatory – answer yes or no.

Question 70

Exhausts should generally be equipped with a muffler (silencer). The muffler should be sized as large as practical and designed to ensure maximum sound attenuation with minimum backpressure.

Dry exhaust systems may be used for propulsion and generator engines of any size.

Question 71

A diverter allowing exhaust gases to pass without restriction may onlybe installed if it is visibly disconnected in a manner that ensures it cannot be easily reconnected while the vessel is in operation.

An installation as shown here is NOT acceptable.

Question 72

Check that all moving parts of the machinery or power-operated equipment, where such parts constitute a hazard, are fitted with guards or other safety equipment.

Question 73

Check that the propulsion or auxiliary machinery manufacturer’s recommendations or other authorities’ criteria, as recognized by the marine community, are taken into account when determining the material and dimensions of shafting and propellers.

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Section 14: Machinery – Vessels More Than 6 Metres

Question 74

The following instruments and controls shall be provided at the vessel's operating position:

  • Engine oil pressure and engine coolant temperature indicators for inboard engines;
  • Fuel capacity gauges, unless other adequate means to determine the amount of fuel is provided;
  • Battery charging gauges;
  • Controls for navigation lights;
  • Indicators for steering equipment;
  • Control and instructions for the blower(s);
  • High bilge indicator;
  • The running indicator for automatic bilge pump;
  • Fire detection panel and alarms;
  • Engine shut-off device.

Question 75

A bilge pumping system shall be provided with a mechanical pump.

  • The pump shall be self-priming and be designed to run dry without damage.
  • Engine driven pumps are acceptable only if they can be run independently from the propulsion shafting.
  • The piping arrangement shall ensure that no back siphoning can occur and marine type strainers shall be provided on the suction line from each compartment.
  • The piping shall be of metal, rigid plastic, non-collapsible and non-oil degradable hose with flanged, screwed, or robust double-clamped connections, where practicable.
  • The piping shall be not less than 25 millimetres (1 inch) in diameter, except that for small compartments piping 18 millimetres (3/4 inch) in diameter may be acceptable if the pump-out time is under five (5) minutes.
  • The automatic bilge pump or a bilge pumping system has a minimum capacity of 0.91 Litres/second (14½ US Gallons/minute).
  • When an automatic bilge pump is fitted, a visual signal shall be provided at the operating position to indicate when the pump is running and a manual overriding switch shall be provided at the operating position

Questions 76, 77 & 78

Self explanatory – answer yes or no.

Question 79

All components of the steering systems gear must be protected from obstructions, excessive heat and mechanical wear.

Question 80

Emergency steering is not required if the vessel is fitted with:

  • Multiple propulsion units with independent control of each propeller.
  • No rudder, where steering action is obtained by a change of directional setting of the propulsion units.
  • A rudder and a tiller are fitted as the main steering arrangement.
  • Independently controlled adjustable trim tabs.
  • A bow thruster.

Question 81

The engine label should have notations as to its intended use. If not, check with the manufacturer to ascertain its applicability for marine use. As an example, many off the shelf generators purchased in box stores are intended only for use on land and are not acceptable for marine use.

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Section 15: Additional Safety and Firefighting Equipment - Vessels More Than 6 Metres

Question 82

The fire panel must be installed as per the manufacturer’s specifications and the specifications of TP 1332.

  Vessel length
Fire alarm/fire alarm panel at the control station/operating position includes: More than 6 m and not more than 9 m More than 9 m and not more than 12 ma More than 12 mb
(a) a visual (red) and audible alarm
(b) a power available light (green) for supervising power as close as possible to the detector
(c) two independent sources of power when the vessel is fitted with an emergency power source  
(d) monitoring of the main power source and automatic change over to the emergency power source  
(e) two independent power sources, one of which is an emergency power source, with automatic change over to the emergency power source    
(f) two independent supervised zones, one for the engine space and one for other spaces    
(g) an automatic means to sound an alarm through the vessel if the alarm signal has not received attention within two (2) minutes    
(h) automatic silencing of the alarm when a voice communication is transmitted over the public address system    
A fire alarm shall initiate a continuous visual and audible alarm at the operating position that can be silenced by the operator only.
When indicator lights other than LED type are used, a test button and a dimmer without off position shall be provided.
The audible alarm shall have a minimum intensity of 84 dB.

a – Includes workboats of more than 12 metres with no overnight accommodations

b – Includes passenger-carrying vessels of more than 12 metres and workboats of more than 12 metres with overnight accommodations

Question 83

The dual action rate-of-rise temperature detector must be:

  • Of a re-settable type;
  • Installed as per the manufacturer instructions;
  • Ignition protected; and
  • Approved and certified for marine use.

Question 84

Fire detectors must be listed for marine use by a product certification body or type approved by a classification society.

On all vessels of not more than 12 metres and on workboats of not more than 15 metres not provided with overnight accommodations, detectors with an integral alarm may be installed. The alarm level shall not be less than 84 decibels.

Question 85

To minimize the chance of one incident blocking both escapes, the means of escapes must:

  • Be as remote from each other as practicable;
  • Have means of exit to different rooms or spaces; and
  • Have a clear opening size of at least 560 millimetres x 560 millimetres.

Only one means of escape is required if:

  • The space is not normally occupied;
  • The dimensions of the space do not permit more than one means of escape;
  • The deck area is not more than 28 metres2.

Question 86

Emergency lighting systems should ideally be of a self-contained type, rechargeable from the vessel's electrical distribution system, and fitted with a charge indicator.

However, as an alternative to the self-contained type, rechargeable or non-rechargeable portable hand lanterns may be provided. The portable lanterns shall provide a light intensity and endurance at least equivalent to an American National Standards Institute ANSI-908 6 volt, 9 watts portable lantern. If equipped with non-rechargeable lanterns, spare batteries shall be carried. All batteries shall be replaced with new batteries annually.

Question 87

Your vessel must be fitted with means to protect persons from falls or falling overboard as per H41.6 of the American Boat and Yacht Council (ABYC) Standards.

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Section 16: Basic Safety and Firefighting Equipment – Vessels Not More Than 6 Metres

Question 88

A buoyant heaving line is thrown toward a person in the water for them to hold on to while you pull them alongside your boat. The throw bag keeps it from getting knotted and makes it easier to throw.

An example of a buoyant heaving line is a 15m x 7mm 300kg test braided polypropylene floating rope with a bright orange nylon and polyester self-draining bag with reflective safety tape.

Question 89

When buying marine distress flares, you should look for a Transport Canada approval stamp or label. Remember that flares are only good for four years from the date of manufacture (not the date of purchase), which is stamped on every flare. You should also ask the manufacturer how to dispose of your expired flares. Flares should be kept within reach and stored vertically in a cool, dry location (such as a watertight container) to keep them in good working condition.

There are four types of approved flares: A, B, C and D. Type A: rocket parachute flare, Type B: multi-star flare, Type C: hand flare, Type D: smoke signal (buoyant or hand-held).

Question 90

A manual propelling device can be a set of oars, a paddle, or anything that a person can operate by hand or foot to propel a boat.

Having the right anchor and cable for your boat is important. Anchors, apart from their regular use, may also be useful to prevent a disabled vessel from grounding and for security if power or steering is lost.

Question 91

Bailers must hold at least 750 millilitres (just over 11/2 pints), have an opening of at least 65 centimetres2 (10 in2) and be made of plastic or metal. If you have a manual bilge pump, the pump and hose must be long enough to reach the bilge and discharge water over the side of the boat

Questions 92 & 93

What does the 1A: 5B: C rating mean? The letters refer to the type of fire, and the numbers refer to the amount of fire the extinguisher can handle.

Fire Class Appropriate for fires involving: Number refers to:
A Combustible materials such as wood, cloth, paper, rubber or plastic.

How much water the extinguisher is equal to – the standard uses a formula of 11/4 gallons (US) multiplied by the rating number.

For example, a 1A: 5B: C extinguisher is equal to 11/4 gallons of water to fight a Class A fire.

B Flammable or combustible liquids such as oil, gasoline or grease.

The amount of square feet of a Class B fire that should be extinguished if the extinguisher is used correctly by an untrained person.

For example, a 1A: 5B: C extinguisher should be able to extinguish 5 square feet of a Class B fire.

C Electrical equipment such as appliances and wiring. No number – the “C” only denotes that the extinguisher is safe for a Class C fire.

Fire extinguishers are to be maintained in good working order and serviced (tagged) by approved technicians as per the manufacturers recommended schedule and practice.

Question 94

Bulwarks and guardrails protect passengers from falling overboard. Guardrails shall have a minimum height of 915 millimetres/3 feet from the weather deck, with rails no more than 230 millimetres/9 inches apart, fitted in areas where there is a risk of people falling overboard while underway. Verify the strength of all railings – pull on them hard as if it were an emergency.

Where the fitting of guardrails would impede the operation of the vessel, alternative safety precautions may be taken. For instance, in open boats, make sure all passengers remain seated, and wear small vessel lifejackets (or PFDs if permitted by TC).

Where children are carried, special precautions are to be taken. The distance between rails shall be reduced or netting provided and you should develop other means to protect children such as having children wear a lifejacket.

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Section 17: Basic Safety and Firefighting Equipment – Vessels More Than 6 Metres But Not More Than 9 Metres

Question 95

For ‘Buoyant Heaving Line’ see Question 88. If a lifebuoy is the preferred option, look for a Transport Canada approval stamp or label. Lifebuoys must be at least 610 millimetres (24 inches) in diameter. SOLAS lifebuoys are 762 millimetres (30 inches) in diameter. Smaller lifebuoys and horseshoe-type devices do not meet the approved specification, but may be carried in addition to the approved lifebuoy(s).

Question 96

See Question 89.

Question 97

See Question 90.

Question 98

See Question 91.

Questions 99, 100 & 101

See Question 92.

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Section 18: Basic Safety and Firefighting Equipment – Vessels More Than 9 Metres But Not More Than 12 Metres

Question 102

See Question 95.

Question 103

See Question 89.

Question 104

See Question 90.

Question 105

See Question 91.

Questions 106, 107 & 108

See Question 92.

Question 109

Fire axes should be painted red and secured in a conspicuous but accessible place.

Question 110

Fire buckets designed for marine use shall have a capacity of at least 10 litres, be fitted with a rounded base with a hole in the centre and be fitted with a lanyard of such length to reach the water from where it is usually stored.

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Section 19: Basic Safety and Firefighting Equipment – Vessels More Than 12 Metres

Question 111

See Question 95.

Question 112

See Question 89.

Question 113

See Question 90.

Question 114

See Question 91.

Questions 115, 116, 117 & 118

See Question 92.

Question 119

Every fire pump shall be:

  • Constructed for marine use, be self-priming and have a minimum capacity of 1.14 Litres/second (about 18 US gallons per minute).
  • Capable of delivering a jet of water of at least 12 metres through the hose and nozzle.
  • Made of non-combustible materials and pump impellers shall be of a type that will not be damaged by heat or if they run dry.
  • Fitted with sea suction inlets having arrangements to prevent blockage of the inlet by debris or ice.

Question 120

The fire main shall have a minimum diameter of 25 millimetres.

The nozzle on a fire hose shall have an internal diameter of at least 12 millimetres; be capable of spray action and jet action and have a means to shut it off.

Question 121

See Question 109.

Question 122

See Question 110.

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Section 20: Additional Items Required For Passenger Vessels

Question 123

The intent of the pre-departure briefing is to alert passengers of hazards and to advise them of procedures in the event of an emergency. Your briefing should include procedures in the event of you being incapacitated.

The briefing may be in either or both of the official languages and must include:

  • The location of all lifejackets, specifically the location of lifejackets for children;
  • A demonstration showing the correct donning each type of lifejacket;
  • The location of all survival craft;
  • The location of first aid kit;
  • The location of flashlights and flares;
  • The location of whistles/air horns;
  • The use and location of fire extinguishers;
  • The use of lifebuoys/throw bags;
  • The safety procedures for the protection of limbs including the avoidance of ropes and docking lines;
  • An explanation of the consequences of improper passenger distribution on the stability of the vessel; and
  • The safety procedures for the prevention of fire and explosions.

Question 124

In the event of an emergency, rescue services need to know where you and your vessel have sailed to, when you are expected to return and how many persons are onboard.

Before leaving shore, you must leave a record of the number of persons onboard with a person on shore who has been designated to be responsible for communicating with search and rescue authorities in the case of an emergency. 

If you are operating in a remote area and it is not possible to leave this information with a person on shore, then a record of the number of persons on board and the area of operation should be left in a location on shore that is known and readily available to search and rescue authorities (for example, on the departure dock).

Question 125

Passenger vessels shall carry one or more life rafts with a total capacity sufficient to carry all persons on board, unless the vessel is:

  • not more than 8.5 m in length;
  • on a sheltered waters voyage (as defined in the Vessel Certificates Regulations); or
  • at a distance of not more than two nautical miles from the shore of a river or lake, that distance being measured either from the mainland or from an island that can be used as a safe refuge from the weather.

A liferaft must be serviced at the intervals (for example, annually or every two years) set out in section 2 of Schedule IV to the Life Saving Equipment Regulations at a service station that is accredited by the manufacturer of the liferaft. The location and last date of service shall be clearly marked on the liferaft (Small Vessel Regulations 21).

With the exception of a liferaft packed in a valise-type container, a liferaft must be stored in a manner that allows it to automatically float free if the vessel sinks (Small Vessel Regulations 21).

Question 126

The gas cylinders shall not be fitted to any appliance and shall be:

  • Well secured and protected from damage;
  • Well secured and protected from the effects of excessive variations in temperature; and
  • Stored in an open space or in a well ventilated location; or
  • Stored on an open deck in a manner that will not permit the ingress or accumulation of the gas below deck.

Question 127 & 128

Passenger vessels not more than 6 metres in length shall be fitted with a heat detector in each engine space that:

  • Is hard-wired to a red visual alarm and to an audible alarm of at least 84 decibels (db), both of which are to be located at the operating position;
  • Has a green light indicating power at the detector; and
  • Is powered by the vessel’s electrical system.

Question 129

Fire detectors must be certified for marine use and installed as per the manufacturer’s instructions; they should be checked regularly to ensure they work. Smoke detectors must be used in accommodation spaces. Heat detectors must be used around cooking appliances. You are advised to document or photograph these items for purposes of future verification.

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Section 21: Additional Items Required For Workboats Engaged in Towing Operations

QuestionS 130 & 131

Self explanatory – answer yes or no.

Question 132

To minimize the chance of one incident blocking both escapes, the means of escapes must:

  • Be as remote from each other as practicable;
  • Have a means of exiting to the outside; and
  • Have a clear opening size of at least 560 millimetres x 560 millimetres.

Only one means of escape is required if:

  • The space is not normally occupied;
  • The dimensions of the space do not permit more than one means of escape; or
  • The deck area is not more than 28 metres2.

Questions 133, 134 & 135

Self explanatory – answer yes or no

Question 136

The liferaft(s) must have a total capacity sufficient to carry all persons on board the vessel.

A buoyant apparatus shall be of a type that has been approved by the United States Coast Guard and the information contained in the nameplate shall be in English and French.

Question 137

If there are two or more persons on board a tug that is more than 8.5 metres in length, it shall carry on board one or more life rafts with a total capacity sufficient to carry all the persons on board.

The life raft must be serviced at the intervals set out in section 2 of Schedule IV to the Life Saving Equipment Regulations at a service station that is accredited by the manufacturer of the life raft. The location and last date of service shall be clearly marked on the life raft (Small Vessel Regulations 21).

The life raft or buoyant apparatus (except for a life raft packed in a valise-type container) must be stored in a manner that allows it to automatically float free if the vessel sinks (Small Vessel Regulations 21).

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