A Guide to the Navigation Protection Program’s Notification, Application and Review Requirements
Navigation Protection Act
Table of Contents
- Background and overview
- NPP processes
- Other review processes
Part 1 – What you need to know about the NPA
Protecting navigation in Canada’s busiest waterways
Marine shipping is an important part of Canada’s transportation system. Today, major commercial marine operations are concentrated in fewer ports and waterways than in the past.
Canada’s navigable waters are also used for recreation, with fishing and tourism making significant contributions to our economy.
The focus of the Navigation Protection Program is on protecting navigation in Canada’s busiest waterways used for commercial and recreational purposes.
These waterways are named on the List of Scheduled Waters—a schedule to the NPA. There are significant differences in how the NPA applies to “scheduled” and “non-scheduled” navigable waters.
This guide explains the differences.
The Navigation Protection Act (NPA) authorizes and regulates interferences with the public right of navigation. A primary purpose of the NPA is to regulate works and obstructions that may interfere with navigation in Canada’s busiest navigable waters.
The Navigation Protection Program (NPP) is responsible for the administration and enforcement of the NPA. Our services are delivered through Transport Canada’s (TC) regional offices located across Canada.
The NPP receives notices, conducts assessments, and issues approvals to construct or place works in navigable waters. Such works can range from private installations on recreational waterfront property to large-scale international mining operations.
Requirements have changed
Federal legislation protecting navigation was amended in 2012 and came into force in 2014. The requirements for notification have changed significantly. Anyone contemplating the construction of works in navigable waters should make sure they are familiar with the new requirements.
Get the facts!
It is important for any person or organization planning to build or place works in, on, over, under, through or across Canada’s navigable waters to have all the facts. Understanding the law and your obligations can help you avoid costly errors and delays.
To become fully aware of all the requirements and the potential impacts of your work, please review this guide in detail, visit the TC web site and refer to the Act itself. If you still aren’t sure of your specific requirements, contact your TC regional office.
Who is this guide for?
This guide is a resource for anyone needing help with notifying the NPP regarding a proposed or existing work in navigable water, from small marina operators who want to build a series of docks, to natural resource companies planning a major development.
While many who need to notify the NPP are contractors and consultants (i.e. “agents”) specializing in building or placing works that may impact navigation, and know the regulatory requirements and how to meet them, others are owners of works who are contacting the NPP for the first and only time.
Recognizing the diversity of NPP clients, this guide provides a general overview of the notice requirements and the review process. It can serve both as an introduction for someone contacting the NPP for the first time, and a refresher for those who have past experience with the program, either before or after the recent amendments to the legislation.
This guide will help you assess whether or not you need to notify the NPP about your proposed or existing work. If you do need to provide notification, the guide describes the steps you must take and explains how to prepare your Notice so you get a response as quickly as possible.
This guide provides a general outline of the process and requirements for an NPP notification and review. However, it does not replace professional assistance (where needed) in preparing the mandatory material.
If there is a difference in interpretation between this guide and the NPA, the NPA and its regulations take precedence.
NPA / NPP Online
You can find the full text of the Navigation Protection Act, along with its schedule(s), regulations and order(s) at:
You can find more information about the Navigation Protection Program, including links to other publications and resources at:
Background and overview
The current Navigation Protection Act (NPA) is the result of amendments to the former Navigable Waters Protection Act (NWPA), one of Canada’s oldest pieces of legislation, dating from 1882. At that time our waterways were Canada’s primary transportation routes.
More than a century later, commercial marine transportation has become more concentrated on a smaller number of busy ports, while recreational use of Canada’s waterways has seen remarkable growth.
Legislative amendments to the NWPA were introduced in Parliament on October 18, 2012, as part of Bill C-45, and received Royal Assent on December 14, 2012. The amendments included a change to the name of the Act to better reflect its intent: protecting navigation.
After the amendments received Royal Assent, Transport Canada modified the renamed Navigation Protection Program to provide for a smooth transition to the administration and enforcement of the NPA. The NPA came into force on April 1, 2014.
The List of Scheduled Waters
The List of Scheduled Waters is one of the most significant changes introduced in the 2012 amendments. The NPP refers to “scheduled” and “non-scheduled” navigable waters to indicate waterways that are or are not listed on this schedule to the Act.
The List of Scheduled Waters includes the busiest waterways in Canada—100 oceans and lakes, and 62 rivers. These are navigable waters that support busy commercial or recreation-related navigation. They are accessible by ports and marinas, and are often close to heavily populated areas.
Selecting the waterways for inclusion on the schedule to the Act was done through an analysis which researched Canada’s waterways according to a number of factors, using recognized data sources. Historical importance and local knowledge were also considered.
Whether or not a navigable water is included on the List of Scheduled Waters affects how the NPA applies to proposed and existing works.
Purpose and scope of the NPP
A main activity of the NPP is administering the NPA through the review and authorization of works in navigable waters. We have different processes in place, applying to:
Works that were legally constructed under previous legislation were transitioned into the NPA works regime when the new legislation came into force. The NPP calls these “legacy works”.
Legacy works do not require an Opt-in request.
Owners of legacy works on navigable waters not listed on the schedule to the Act may opt out of the regime, but only until April 1, 2019.
For more information, see the NPP fact sheets: Opt-in Requests & Opt-out Notifications.
- works in navigable waters listed on the schedule to the Act,
- “legacy” works on non-scheduled navigable waters which transitioned to the authority of the NPA when it came into force, and
- works on non-scheduled navigable waters for which the owner wishes to request an “opt in” to the NPA (or has successfully opted in).
The 2012 amendments have required the NPP to differentiate between scheduled and non-scheduled navigable waters and revise our processes accordingly. For some works in navigable waters the NPP is not involved. The different owner requirements and NPP processes are described in the following section of the guide.
Regardless of which process applies, the majority of the work carried out by the NPP involves evaluating impacts to navigation and acting to minimize risks to navigation—including risks to navigation safety—through our decisions and compliance activities.
Before considering if you need to notify the NPP about your project, you should understand what we mean by the terms “work” and “owner”.
- A “work” is defined as any structure, device or thing—temporary or permanent—made by humans that is in, on, over, under, though or across any navigable water. To be considered a work it must have some degree of interference with navigation. A work also includes the dumping of fill or the excavation of materials from the bed of any navigable water.
- Under the NPA, an “owner” of a work can be the actual or reputed owner of a work, or the owner’s agent. This definition includes a person who is in possession or claiming ownership of the work, and a person who is authorizing or otherwise responsible for the construction, placement, alteration, repair, rebuilding, removal, decommissioning, maintenance, operation, safety or use of the work. It also includes a person who proposes to construct or place a work.
Do I need to notify?
Under the NPA, “Notice to the Minister” (i.e. the Minister of Transport) must be submitted by owners of works in scheduled navigable waters, including works that are proposed, commenced or completed, unless the work is a “designated work”.
A “designated work” is one that meets the criteria established in the Minor Works Order (see text box).
More specifically, a Notice to the Minister must be submitted by any owner who constructs, places, alters, repairs, rebuilds, removes or decommissions a work (other than a designated work) in, on, over, under, through or across any navigable water that is included on the List of Scheduled Waters.
The requirement to submit a Notice to the Minister applies even if the work has already begun or has been completed.
Notice to the Minister is also required for works in non-scheduled navigable waters where owners of authorized works have not exercised their option to “opt out” before April 1, 2019. All works authorized under the previous legislation were automatically transitioned into the NPA works regime. Notice to the Minister is required if the owner proposes to alter, repair, rebuild, remove or decommission the work. These works may be referred to as “legacy works” (see text box, previous page).
Another category of works in non-scheduled navigable waters requiring a Notice to the Minister comprises works for which the NPP has accepted an opt-in request. (The opt-in process is described below.)
A complete Notice to the Minister comprises all elements of the owner’s submission, including the NPP Notice of Works Form described in this guide, along with any attachments and other supporting information required for the review of the work. This may include information related to other processes, for example, documentation relating to environmental review or Aboriginal consultation.
To summarize, you need to notify the NPP when your work:
- is on a scheduled navigable waterway and is not a designated (minor) work,
- involves a legacy work on a non-scheduled navigable water, or
- involves a work on a non-scheduled navigable water that has successfully opted in to the NPA regime.
The Navigation Protection Act provides the Minister of Transport with the power to make orders. The Minor Works Order* allows for works to be built if they meet the criteria for the applicable class of works (see list below), as well as specific terms and conditions for construction.
Works meeting the criteria of the Minor Works Order are considered “designated works” under the NPA and may proceed without Notice to the Minister as long as they comply with the legal requirements set out in the Order.
It is the responsibility of the owner to assess the work and ensure that it meets all of the established criteria. It is also the responsibility of the owner to ensure that all legal requirements are met.
The classes of works currently established for minor works are:
- Erosion-Protection Works
- Docks and Boathouses
- Boat Ramps, Slipways and Launch Ramps
- Aerial Cables – Power and Telecommunication
- Submarine Cables – Power and Telecommunication
- Pipelines Buried Under the Bed of Navigable Water
- Pipelines and Power or Communication Cables Attached To Existing Works
- Works within a Boomed-Off Area Upstream or Downstream of an Existing Work For Water Control
- Outfalls and Water Intakes
- Mooring Systems
*At the time of writing, this order is formally known as the Minor Works and Waters (Navigable Waters Protection Act) Order, an amended version of the order established under previous legislation. Revisions to the order are in process. Please see the NPP website for links to the most up-to-date information.
Please note — If your work does not meet the criteria established for minor works and repairs, and notification is required (see “Do I need to notify?” above), you must receive the NPP decision before the work is built, placed or repaired. Any work that does not meet NPA requirements may be removed at your expense, and you may be fined.
Get all permits and approvals
This guide only covers requirements under the NPA. Works constructed in navigable waters may also involve applications under other legislation.
You are responsible for getting any other required forms of approval, including building permits, under any applicable laws—federal, provincial and municipal.
How do I notify?
Your Notice to the Minister must be completed as required and submitted to the NPP, usually through your nearest TC regional office.
The mandatory information requirements for a Notice to the Minister are:
- completed and signed “Notice of Works” form (with all mandatory fields completed),
- map showing the location of the project,
- plan view drawings (top down) with dimensions, and
- profile view drawings (side view) with dimensions.
In addition to the mandatory documentation requirements, the Notice of Works Form also provides a list of recommended supporting documents. Including this additional information may help expedite the review, particularly if there are environmental review or Aboriginal consultation considerations associated with the project.
The Notice of Works Form includes a check box for the owner to indicate if the Notice is also intended to serve as an “Application for Approval”. The Application for Approval is only required for projects which risk a substantial interference with navigation. If the owner thinks or has indication that this is likely to be the case, it may be expedient to indicate that the Notice to the Minister should also serve as an Application for Approval.
It is very important that you submit a complete Notice. Make sure that you fill in all mandatory fields and include all mandatory documents. We will return incomplete Notices. This will cause you unnecessary delays.
What will TC do?
When the NPP receives your Notice to the Minister, it is first screened to make sure that the work is subject to the NPA, all required information has been provided, and it is not likely a designated work that could proceed under the terms of the Minor Works Order. If these requirements are not met, your Notice will be returned.
Following the initial screening, a Notice to the Minister is assigned to an NPP officer and the work is assessed for the likelihood of substantial interference with navigation. The officer will assess both the nature and degree of the potential interference. For NPP purposes, “nature” identifies the source of the interference and “degree” indicates the severity of potential navigation impacts.
The officer will look at a variety of factors, including:
- characteristics of the navigable water,
- safety of navigation,
- current or anticipated navigation in the navigable water,
- impact of the work on navigation in that navigable water as a result of its construction, placement, alteration, repair, rebuilding, removal, decommissioning, maintenance, operation or use,
- cumulative impact of the work on navigation in that navigable water, and
- any other relevant factors.
Submit your Notice early
Be sure to submit your Notice to the NPP well before you want to start building or placing your work, or undertaking alteration, major repair/rebuilding, removal, or decommissioning of your work. This will give the NPP time to process your Notice.
You must complete the NPP process before construction starts. Once issued, ensure that your NPP documents are available upon request.
While conducting the assessment, the NPP officer may ask you to take certain actions, for example:
- provide additional information,
- meet the officer on the site,
- publish information about your project,
- seek stakeholder input, and/or
- begin complementary review requirements (see below).
You may be directed to deposit specific information and publish notices inviting public comment on waterway use and potential navigation impacts. If this is the case, the NPP will provide you with an information package that clearly outlines the steps that you must follow.
During the assessment phase of the review, the NPP may develop project-specific requirements for mitigating the potential impacts to navigation. This may include terms and conditions that would be attached to any approval or permission issued for the work. Possible compliance requirements may be identified, such as written confirmation of compliance from the owner or on-site inspections by TC staff during or after the construction of the work.
What might be the outcome?
Following the assessment, there are four types of decision that may be issued by TC:
1. No further TC involvement is required in order for the work to proceed.
This may be because, for example, the work is located on a non-scheduled water and is not within the NPP mandate, the work is a designated work subject to the Minor Works Order, or the work does not risk any interference with navigation. The finding will be explained to the owner.
2. The work is not likely to substantially interfere with navigation and is therefore determined to be a permitted work.
This means that the assessment has found that, while there will be some interference with navigation, the work is not likely, for example, to change a vessel’s passage in a significant way or make it more dangerous to navigate the waterway. Once notified of this determination has been made by TC, permitted works are allowed to proceed without further approval, although terms and conditions may be applied to the work.
3. The work is likely to substantially interfere with navigation and therefore requires approval from the Minister of Transportation.
This means that the assessment has found that the work is likely to substantially impact navigation, for example, by significantly changing the way vessels pass down the waterway or making passage dangerous to the public. These works require that an “Application for Approval” be submitted to the NPP. As noted above, this may be done concurrently with submitting the Notice to the Minister, or it may be done subsequent to the finding that the work is likely to substantially interfere with navigation. Work may not proceed until an approval is issued.
Once its review is complete, the NPP may issue an Approval if the impacts to navigation can be addressed through specific terms and conditions that you must meet. These terms and conditions form part of the Approval document you need before you begin your work. If you have any concerns about the terms and conditions in the Approval document, immediately contact the NPP for clarification and further direction.
4. Permission to proceed with the work is denied.
When the assessment finds that impacts to navigation are unacceptable, permission to proceed with the work may be denied. It may be possible for the work to be re-assessed following changes to the design of the work. The NPP will provide guidance to the owner.
Permission may also be denied pending the outcome of other review processes (environmental review and/or Aboriginal consultation. These processes are described below.
What about my work on a non-scheduled water?
As described above under “Do I need to notify?” there are two categories of works in non-scheduled navigable waters for which a Notice to the Minister is required:
- legacy works for which no opt-out notification has been acknowledged by the NPP (see text box on page 4), and
- works for which an application to opt in to the NPA regime has been successful.
The NPA applies to legacy works as it does to works located in scheduled waters. Owners of existing legacy works, other than designated (minor) works, are required to provide notice to the Minister before undertaking an alteration, repair, rebuilding, removal, or decommissioning of the work.
The NPA includes an “opt-in” provision that allows owners of works in non-scheduled navigable waters to ask for assessment and review of their work under the NPA. Although making a request to opt-in to the NPA is optional, owners of projects may wish to have their work reviewed so they can proceed with the added assurance that the work’s interference with navigation is sanctioned under the NPA.
The process for opting in is similar to the review process for works in scheduled waters, but with additional information requirements. The opt-in provision is only applicable to works on non-scheduled navigable waters, so navigability is one of the key factors.
The NPP considers the following questions when determining if a waterway is a navigable water:
- Can a vessel physically navigate in the waterway?
- Is the waterway being used by the public for navigation, or has it been used for navigation in the past?
- Does the public have rights to access the navigable water for navigation and or travel purposes?
- Is the waterway part of an “aqueous highway” (an established route or part of a network)?
Other factors taken into consideration are the work itself (i.e., does it meet the definition of a work under the NPA), the potential impacts to navigation, and other relevant circumstances provided by the owner that may warrant a decision to accept the request.
TC may accept an opt-in request or deny the request if it is determined to be unwarranted. If the request is accepted the full NPA regime and all requirements apply to the work.
In order to formally request to opt-in a work, an Opt-in Form must be completed and submitted to your regional NPP office along with a Notice to Minister Form. Once a work has successfully opted in to the NPA regime, owners are required to provide notice to the Minister before undertaking an alteration, repair (other than a minor repair), rebuilding, removal, or decommissioning of the work.
Other review processes
Depending on the type of project proposed, the nature and degree of impacts, and its location, you may need to go through one or more additional review processes. These processes are referred to as complementary review processes by the NPP, and they may run concurrently with the NPP review. Please contact us early in your project planning process to get additional guidance.
These other processes are:
- Environmental reviews – review of potential adverse environmental effects under the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act, 2012, federal legislation applying in the North, or one of the northern land claim agreements,
- Aboriginal consultation – review of potential adverse impacts on potential or established Aboriginal or Treaty Rights recognized and affirmed in section 35 of the Constitution Act, 1982 and/or
- Order in Council exemption – pursuant to NPA section 24 for the throwing or depositing of certain material or the dewatering of a waterway.
Certain works may trigger the need to assess potential environmental impacts related to the project. These environmental reviews are required under various pieces of federal legislation or land claim agreements, namely:
- Canadian Environmental Assessment Act, 2012 (CEAA)
- Yukon Environmental and Socio-economic Assessment Act (YESAA)
- Mackenzie Valley Resource Management Act (MVRMA)
- Nunavut Land Claims Agreement (NLCA)
- Inuvialuit Final Agreement (IFA)
The NPP needs to know if the work is located on federal land, as defined by CEAA (see potential requirements under CEAA 2012). The NPP informs Transport Canada’s Environmental Assessment Group about all work on federal land, including whether or not the work requires an NPP determination. If the work requires an NPP determination, the Environmental Assessment Group will conduct an Environmental Effects Determination (EED) on the project.
If an environmental review is required, we cannot provide you with a determination on the likelihood of interference under the NPA until it is completed. You may be required to provide input or additional information for a review of potential environmental impacts.
When an environmental review is required the NPP will need to know if the work is located on Federal lands as defined under Section 2 of CEAA 2012, includes:
- Crown lands registered under “Her Majesty in right of Canada” or any federal department or agency, located within a province of Canada, and the submerged land associated with such property,
- the internal waters and territorial sea of Canada, in any area of the sea not within a province,
- the exclusive economic zone and continental shelf of Canada, and
- reserves, surrendered lands and any other lands that are set apart for the use and benefit of a band and that are subject to the Indian Act, and all waters on those lands.
For example, all Canadian Port Authorities located in inland waters, such as those in Thunder Bay, Toronto and Montréal, are located on provincial submerged land (inland waters) but have property title making them federal land area.
See CEAA 2012 Section 2 for a more precise definition. Your NPP regional office will be able to assist you in advance of submitting your Notice, or if you select “unknown”.
If environmental review and/or Aboriginal consultation processes are likely to be necessary, you are advised to attach a separate detailed project description, which may be combined with the required project description information.
The following is the preferred format for separate project descriptions. All of the listed elements should be covered:
- Geographic and environmental setting
- Land use information
- Project components / structures
- Project activities
- Resource / material requirements
- Consultations undertaken
- Additional components
The text box on the following page will help you to determine if your project might be a Designated Project under the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act, 2012.
Potential requirements under CEAA 2012
This information is provided to support the question: “Is the project a Designated Project under the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act (CEAA) 2012 Regulations?” The list below notes specific types of projects covered under the Regulations Designating Physical Activities as per CEAA 2012.
When a project meets the conditions of a designated project, an environmental assessment will be required. A link to the CEAA 2012 schedule is provided in Part 3 of this guide. Detailed conditions and thresholds for each type of project to qualify as a Designated Project are provided in this schedule.
- Generating station
- Transmission line
- Dam, dyke, reservoir or other structure for the diversion of water
- Oil or gas facility or oil and gas pipeline (including sour gas, natural gas, etc.)
- Offshore exploratory wells
- A mine or mill or quarry (including all metals, pulp or paper or other materials)
- An industrial or nuclear facility, smelter or tannery
- A canal or lock
- A marine terminal
- A railway line or public highway
- A waste management facility
- A military base , training area, or test area
- An aerodrome, airport or all season runway
- An international bridge, interprovincial bridge, or bridge over the St. Lawrence Seaway
Before submitting a Notice to the Minister, owners are strongly encouraged to contact the Canadian Environmental Assessment Agency, the National Energy Board or the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (as appropriate to your project), if there is potential that any component(s) of the project meet the conditions of a Designated Project under CEAA 2012.
The federal government has a legal duty to consult Aboriginal groups when its conduct has the potential to adversely impact Aboriginal or Treaty rights. If your project triggers the legal duty to consult with Aboriginal groups, you may need to provide detailed information necessary to ensure consultations are adequate. Transport Canada will notify you if consultation is required.
Order in Council exemption
Throwing or depositing floating materials likely to interfere with navigation in navigable waters (e.g. disposal of waste from logging activities) is prohibited under the NPA. Throwing or depositing materials liable to sink to the bottom of a navigable water (e.g. dumping of mine tailings) is prohibited, where there is not a minimum depth of 36 metres of water at all times. The 2012 amendments clarified that “dewatering” is included by specifically naming it as a prohibited activity. Dewatering means drying up the navigable water.
The prohibition of these activities applies to all navigable waters in Canada (and any water that flows into a navigable water), not just those listed on the schedule to the Act. Only the Governor in Council has authority to exempt waters from the application of these prohibitions, if it is in the public interest to do so.
The mechanism used to do this is called an “order in council”. Many federal and provincial departments and agencies may become involved in this process. Extensive public consultation and Aboriginal is required and an environmental review may be required.
Typically, orders in council under the NPA are only sought for major resource development projects. For major resource projects, the first point of contact with the federal regulatory review process should be the Major Projects Management Office (MPMO) at Natural Resources Canada. MPMO officers will be able to provide an overview of all the required components.
If an order in council is sought to exempt a navigable body of water (and/or any water that flows into a navigable water) from the prohibitions of the NPA, it is the responsibility of the project owner to compile the baseline research required for Transport Canada to conduct triage and prepare the necessary documents related to the order in council. Transport Canada will develop the Minister’s recommendation (the official request for an exemption from the Minister of Transport to the Governor in Council), based on the information and evidence submitted.
For more information, see the Guide to the Federal Regulatory Development Process available on the Treasury Board website at http://www.tbs-sct.gc.ca/rtrap-parfa/gfrpg-gperf/gfrpg-gperftb-eng.asp.
Approval Process Flow Chart
(not for all works)
Permission or Approval and Work
Self-assess to determine if you need to apply for approval
Fill in the Notice of Works Form completely
Complete mandatory opt-in requirements, if necessary
Submit your Notice with all mandatory documents
Information is screened to ensure it includes all mandatory information and documents
NPP officer reviews project for impacts to navigation; this may include on-site assessments
Additional information may be required from owner
The following processes may also be required:
NPP may advise that your work is permitted to proceed
NPP may issue an approval document
You must keep NPP documents on site
You must meet all terms and conditions
NPP officer may inspect site for compliance
For more information on how to fill out the Notice of Works Form, please visit the website at https://www.tc.gc.ca/eng/programs-621.html for the Transport Canada publication “A Guide to Completing the Navigation Protection Program’s Notice of Works Form”. For any other information pertaining to the Navigation Protection Act review, authorization and approval process, contact your nearest Transport Canada NPP regional office. Our staff will be happy to help.
Part 2 - Contact information and online resources
Please contact the office in your region with any questions or concerns:
Navigation Protection Program
95 Foundry Street, 6th Floor
P.O. Box 42
Moncton, New Brunswick
St. John’s, NFLD Office
10 Barter’s Hill
John Cabot Building, 9th Floor
P.O. Box 1300
St. John’s, NL
Fax: 506-851 7542
Note: All notices from the Atlantic Region should be sent to the Moncton office.
Navigation Protection Program
1550 avenue d’Estimauville
Navigation Protection Program
Transport Canada, Marine Office
100 South Front Street, 1st Floor
Prairie and Northern Region
Navigation Protection Program
1100-9700 Jasper Avenue
Navigation Protection Program
Pacific Regional Office
820-800 Burrard Street
If you don’t know which regional office to contact:
Tower C, Place de Ville
330 Sparks Street, 18th Floor
Note: This office does not process notices.
Additional Online Resources
Navigation Protection Program, Transport Canada
Navigation Protection Act
List of Scheduled Waters (Schedule to the NPA)
Atlas of Canada
Canadian Environmental Assessment Agency
Canadian Environmental Assessment Act, 2012
Regulations Designating Physical Activities as per CEAA 2012
Yukon Environmental and Socio-economic Assessment Act
Mackenzie Valley Resource Management Act
Nunavut Land Claims Agreement Article 12
Inuvialuit Final Agreement
Guide to the Federal Regulatory Development Process